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Prof. Dietmar Harhoff, Ph.D.

Director

Innovation and Entrepreneurship Research
Honorary Professor at the University of Munich

+49 89 24246-550
+49 89 24246-599
dietmar.harhoff(at)ip.mpg.de
Gisela Stingl

Areas of Interest:

Innovation research and management; entrepreneurship; strategic management; empirical economics/industrial economics/corporate finance; empirical methods/econometrics and statistics; economic policy

Academic Résumé

Education:

1996        Habilitation/Venia Legendi (Economics), Faculty for Economics and Statistics,                                                                University of Mannheim

1991        Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), MIT Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology 

1987        Master of Public Administration (MPA), John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University 

1984        Diplom-Ingenieur (Mechanical Engineering), Department of Mechanical                                                                        Engineering, University of Dortmund 

Academic Career:

2015 - 2016
Managing Director at the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition

Since 06/2014
Director at the Research Center for Entrepreneurship and Innovation, LMU Munich

Since 03/2013
Director at the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition (formerly Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property and Competition Law), Department of Innovation and Entrepreneurship Research

Since 03/2013
Honorary Professor for Entrepreneurship and Innovation at the University of Munich (LMU)

01/2010 - 10/2010
Visiting Professor, Stanford University (Department of Economics and Stanford Institute of Economic Policy Research)

10/2007 - 09/2011
LMU Research Professorship, “Innovation and Incentives - Towards New Paradigms”

10/2007 - 09/2011
Research Dean LMU Munich School of Management

10/2005 - 09/2007
Dean LMU Munich School of Management

03/2001 - 09/2001 
Visiting Professor, MIT Sloan School of Management, Cambridge

Since 1998
Director of the LMU Entrepreneurship Center (LMU EC). Member of the Board - Center for Digital Technology and Management (CDTM)

1998 - 2013
University Professor, Faculty of Business Administration, Director of the Institute for Innovation Research, Technology Management and Entrepreneurship (INNO-tec) 

1997 - 1998
Research Professor, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB) 

1995 - 1998
Associate Scientific Director, Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW), Head of the ZEW Research Group ‘Corporate Taxation and Public Finance’

1993 - 1995
Assistant Professor, University of Mannheim, Lehrstuhl für Volkswirtschaftslehre

1993
Visiting Scholar, MIT Sloan School of Management, Massachussetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 

1991 - 1993
Senior Researcher, Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW) 

1985
Research Engineer, Fraunhofer-Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik (IPK) Berlin

1984
Visiting Scientist, University of Birmingham (UK), Department of Mechanical Engineering 

Research Affiliations: 

Since 2001
Research Associate, Center for Economic Studies (CESifo), Munich

Since 1999
Research Professor, Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW), Mannheim

Since 1996
International Research Associate, Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), London

Since 1996
Research Associate/Fellow, Center for Economic Policy Research (CEPR), London

Academic Prizes and Honours

2015                 Elected Member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences (BAdW)

2013                 Schumpeter School Award for Corporate and Economic Analysis

2010                 Elected Member of the German Academy Leopoldina

2008                Elected Member of the German Academy of Science and Engineering (acatech)

1991                  Alfred P. Sloan School of Management Dissertation Award

1987 - 1991     Doctoral Scholarship - Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1985 - 1987     McCloy Scholarship

1980 - 1984    Stipend, Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes

1978                 Abitur Award Abiturientenvereinigung Ahlen e.V.

Memberships in Academic Associations

Verband der Hochschullehrer für Betriebswirtschaftslehre e.V. (VHB)
Verein für Socialpolitik (VfS)
European Economic Association (EEA)
American Economic Association (AEA)
European Association for Research in Industrial Economics (EARIE)

Memberships in Editorial Boards

Since 2012        Editorial Board, Applied Economics Quarterly
Since 2010        Editorial Board, Review of Managerial Science
Since 2008       Advisory Editor, Research Policy
Since 2008       Editorial Board, European Management Review
2008 - 2010     Review Board, Journal of Business Venturing
Since 2005       Scientific Advisory Board, Journal für Betriebswirtschaft
2005 - 2016     Editorial Board, Small Business Economics

Referee

Academy of Management, American Economic Review, Econometrica, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Empirical Economics, European Economic Review, ifo-Studien, International Journal of Industrial Organization (IJIO), Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, Journal of Banking and Finance, Journal of Empirical Finance, Journal of Engineering Technology Management, Journal of Labor Economics, Journal of Population Economics, Management Science, RAND Journal of Economics, Regional Science and Urban Economics, Research Policy, Review of Economics and Statistics, Small Business Economics, Zeitschrift für betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung (ZfbF), Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft (ZfB).

Selected Publications

Articles in Refereed Journals

Gambardella, Alfonso; Harhoff, Dietmar; Verspagen, Bart (2017). The Economic Value of Patent Portfolios, Journal of Economics & Management Strategy 2017, forthcoming.
More ...

Zwick, Thomas; Frosch, Katharina; Hoisl, Karin; Harhoff, Dietmar (2017). The Power of Individual-Level Drivers of Inventive Performance, Research Policy, 46 (1), 121-137.
More ...

Cremers, Katrin; Ernicke, Max; Gaessler, Fabian; Harhoff, Dietmar; Helmers, Christian;  McDonagh, Luke; Schliessler, Paula; van Zeebroeck, Nicolas (2016). Patent Litigation in Europe, European Journal of Law and Economics, 41 (1), 1-44.
More ...

Harhoff, Dietmar; von Graevenitz, Georg; Wagner, Stefan (2016). Conflict Resolution, Public Goods and Patent Thickets, Management Science, 62 (3), 704-721.
More ...

Edited Books, Collected Editions

Harhoff, Dietmar; Lakhani, Karim R. (Hg.) (2016). Revolutionizing Innovation: Users, Communities, and Open Innovation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
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Further Publications, Press Articles, Interviews

Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation (EFI); Backes-Gellner, Uschi; Böhringer, Christoph; Cantner, Uwe; Harhoff, Dietmar; Ott, Ingrid; Schnitzer, Monika (Hg.) (2017). Gutachten zu Forschung, Innovation und technologischer Leistungsfähigkeit Deutschlands 2017. Berlin: EFI.
More ...

Full List of Publications

Articles in Refereed Journals

Böhringer, Christoph; Cuntz, Alexander; Harhoff, Dietmar; Asane-Otoo, Emmanuel (2017). The Impact of the German Feed-in Tariff Scheme on Innovation: Evidence Based on Patent Filings in Renewable Energy Technologies, Energy Economics 2017, forthcoming. DOI

  • Over the last two decades, feed-in tariffs have pushed the massive expansion of electricity from renewable energy sources in Germany. Between 1991 and 1999, feed-in tariffs were prescribed through the Electricity Feed-in Law – the so-called Stromeinspeisungsgesetz (SEG) – at relatively moderate rates. From 2000 onwards, the SEG was replaced by the Renewable Energy Sources Act – the so-called Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) – with much higher subsidy rates. The rise in subsidies to renewable power generation under the EEG came along with a substantial increase in electricity prices provoking an intense public debate on the benefits of renewable energy promotion. In our regression analysis, we assess one popular justification for feed-in tariffs: the demand-side effect of induced innovation. We find that the innovation impact of the German feed-in tariff scheme over the last two decades supports the positive innovation hypothesis. However, the inducement effect of the feed-in tariff scheme under the EEG is not significantly different from that of the SEG. Given the drastic cost of the EEG, we caution against the appraisal of the EEG feed-in tariff scheme solely on the grounds of its impact on technological innovation.

Anding, Markus; Boes, Andreas; Eckert, Claudia; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hess, Thomas; Münch, Ursula; Pretschner, Alexander (2017). Herausforderungen an der Schnittstelle von Informatik und Gesellschaft - Institutionalisierte Erforschung der Digitalisierung zur Sicherung von Wohlstand und Fortschritt, Informatik Spektrum, 40 (2), 172-175. DOI

    Zwick, Thomas; Frosch, Katharina; Hoisl, Karin; Harhoff, Dietmar (2017). The Power of Individual-Level Drivers of Inventive Performance, Research Policy, 46 (1), 121-137. DOI

    • Based on an established theoretical framework of the drivers of inventive performance, the so-called KSAO (Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Other) factors, this paper seeks to explain empirically the performance of inventors throughout their careers. We combine survey information spanning the inventors’ entire careers and psychometric test evidence, with patent history data for more than 1,000 inventors. We also control for variables that have traditionally been included in estimations of inventive performance such as inventor age and a broad list of applicant institution-, technology-, patent-, and period-related information. We show that educational level, skills acquired during the career, personality traits, career motivations, cognitive abilities, and cognitive problem-solving style are significantly related to inventive performance.
    • ZEW Discussion Paper

    Gambardella, Alfonso; Harhoff, Dietmar; Verspagen, Bart (2017). The Economic Value of Patent Portfolios, Journal of Economics & Management Strategy 2017, forthcoming. DOI

      Cremers, Katrin; Ernicke, Max; Gaessler, Fabian; Harhoff, Dietmar; Helmers, Christian; McDonagh, Luke; Schliessler, Paula; van Zeebroeck, Nicolas (2016). Patent Litigation in Europe, European Journal of Law and Economics 41.1, 1-44. DOI

      • We compare patent litigation cases across four European jurisdictions—Germany, the UK (England and Wales), France, The Netherlands—using case-level data gathered from cases filed in the four jurisdictions during the period 2000–2008. Overall, we find substantial differences across jurisdictions in terms of caseloads—notably, courts in Germany hear by far the largest number of cases, not only in absolute terms, but also when taking macro-economic indicators into account—and we further find important cross-country variances in terms of case outcomes. Moreover, we show empirically that a considerable number of patents are litigated across multiple European jurisdictions; and further, that in the majority of these cases divergent case outcomes are reached across the different jurisdictions, suggesting that the long-suspected problem of inconsistency of decision-making in European patent litigation is in fact real. Finally, we note that the coming into force of the Unified Patent Court in Europe may, in the long term, help to alleviate this inconsistency problem.

      Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Mariani, Myriam (2016). Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents: Empirical Evidence from a Large-Scale Inventor Survey, Research Policy, 45 (7), 1374-1385. DOI

      • This paper employs data from a large-scale survey (InnoS&T) of inventors in Europe, the USA, and Japan who were listed in patent applications filed at the European Patent Office with priority years between 2003 and 2005. We provide evidence regarding the reasons for patenting and the ways in which patents are being utilized. A substantial share of patents is neither used internally nor for market transactions, which confirms the importance of strategic patenting and inefficiency in the management of intellectual property. We investigate different types of unused patents—unused blocking patents and sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results and derive some implications for innovation and patent policy.

      Harhoff, Dietmar (2016). Patent Quality and Examination in Europe, American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings, 106 (5), 193-197. DOI

      • This paper reports on effects of recent administrative reforms at the European Patent Office (EPO). In EPO-granted patents, claims numbers started to decline in 2008 when new claims fees became effective, claims sections in patents became shorter, and independent claims longer and presumably more specific. The grant rate remained at relatively low levels, but the EPO was unable to stem the use of divisional filings. The developments at the EPO point to a high private value of delay options. Delay may be achieved either by making use of explicit statutory rules or by other means, such as filing divisional applications.

      Harhoff, Dietmar; von Graevenitz, Georg; Wagner, Stefan (2016). Conflict Resolution, Public Goods and Patent Thickets, Management Science, 62 (3), 704-721. DOI

      • Postgrant validity challenges at patent offices rely on the private initiative of third parties to correct mistakes made by patent offices. We hypothesize that incentives to bring postgrant validity challenges are reduced when many firms benefit from revocation of a patent and when firms are caught up in patent thickets. Using data on opposition to patents at the European Patent Office we show that opposition decreases in fields in which many others profit from patent revocations. Moreover, in fields with a large number of mutually blocking patents, the incidence of opposition is sharply reduced, particularly among large firms and firms that are caught up directly in patent thickets. These findings indicate that postgrant patent review may not constitute an effective correction device for erroneous patent grants in technologies affected by either patent thickets or highly dispersed patent ownership.

      Hoisl, Karin; Harhoff, Dietmar; Dorner, Matthias; Hinz, Tina; Bender, Stefan (2016). Social Ties and Patent Quality Signals – Evidence from East German Inventor Migration, Academy of Management Proceedings - Best Papers, 2016:1, 13594.

      • We study the impact of social ties and publicly observable performance signals on the mobility of knowledge workers. In our empirical setting we exploit the fall of the Iron Curtain as a natural experiment for the migration decision of East German inventors. We identify 21,935 East German Inventors via their patenting track records prior to 1990 and social security records in the pan-German labor market. By modeling their mobility decision after 1989, we find that West regions with more pronounced social ties attracted more inventors. However, inventors with better performance indicators prior to 1990 are substantially less dependent on these social ties for their migration decision. We find additional evidence that the same group of inventors manage to enter regional labor markets that fit significantly better to their origin region in East Germany. We conclude that social ties support labor market access while visible labor market signals reduce the dependence on these ties Copyright of Academy of Management Journal is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.
      • http://proceedings.aom.org/content/2016/1/13594.full.pdf+html

      Graham, Stuart J. H.; Harhoff, Dietmar (2014). Separating Patent Wheat from Chaff: Would the U.S. Benefit from Adopting Patent Post-Grant Review?, Research Policy, 43 (9), 1649-1659. DOI

      • This paper assesses the impact in the US of adopting a patent post-grant review procedure (opposition). By employing novel methods for matching US patents to their non-US counterparts, we find that the opposition rate is about three times higher among the European Patent Office (EPO) equivalents of a sample of US litigated patents as against control-group (unlitigated) patents. Contingent upon reaching final judgment in EPO opposition, about 70 percent of these equivalent patents are either completely revoked or narrowed. Using these findings to inform a series of welfare estimates, we calculate a range of net social benefits that would accrue to the US from adopting a patent post-grant review. We discover that large social benefits would result primarily from the elimination of unwarranted market power, and less so from litigation cost savings per se. Our results provide evidence that the US could benefit substantially from adopting an administrative patent post-grant review, provided the mechanism is not too costly.
      • Available at SSRN

      Haeussler, Carolin; Harhoff, Dietmar; Mueller, Elisabeth (2014). How patenting informs VC investors – The Case of Biotechnology, Research Policy, 43 (8), 1286-1298. DOI

      • In the presence of asymmetric information, economic agents need to communicate their quality to investors and other parties. This paper investigates how information generated during the patenting process affects the ability of new ventures to attract VC financing. While much of the literature on information asymmetries focuses on patent applications, we argue that the entire examination process should be considered, including information that emerges in the course of patent examination and review. We test several hypotheses using a sample of British and German companies that seek venture capital. We find that the filing of patent applications is positively related to VC financing. Moreover, the examination process at the patent office generates valuable technological and commercial information via search reports, citations and opposition procedures which affect the likelihood of VC financing. Our results suggest that the patenting process supports investors in updating their expectations regarding the quality of new ventures.

      Harhoff, Dietmar; Mueller, Elisabeth; Van Reenen, John (2014). What are the Channels for Technology Sourcing? Panel Data Evidence from German Companies, Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, 23 (1), 204-224. DOI

      • Innovation processes within corporations increasingly tap into international technology sources, yet little is known about the relative contribution of different types of innovation channels. We investigate the effectiveness of different types of international technology sourcing activities using survey information on German companies complemented with information from the European Patent Office. German firms with inventors based in the United States disproportionately benefit from R&D knowledge located in the United States. The positive influence on total factor productivity is larger if the research of the inventors results in coapplications of patents with US companies. Moreover, research cooperation with American suppliers also enables German firms to better tap into US R&D, but cooperation with customers and competitors does not appear to aid technology sourcing. The results suggest that the “brain drain” to the United States can have upsides for corporations tapping into American know-how.

      Gruber, Marc; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin (2013). Knowledge Recombination Across Technological Boundaries: Scientists vs. Engineers, Management Science, 59 (4), 837-851. DOI

      • Building on the seminal work of Thomas J. Allen, we contribute to the emerging microlevel theory of knowledge recombination by examining how individual-level characteristics of inventors affect the breadth of their technological recombinations. Our data set combines information from 30,550 European patents with matched survey data obtained from 1,880 inventors. The analysis supports the view that inventors with a scientific education are more likely to generate patents that span technological boundaries (in our case, 30 broad, top-level technological domains) than inventors with an engineering degree. A doctoral degree is associated with increased recombination breadth for all groups of inventors. The breadth of an inventor's technological recombinations diminishes with increasing temporal distance to his education, but the differences between scientists and engineers persist over time. Our findings provide several new insights for research on inventors, the literature on organizational learning and innovation, and strategy research.

      Von Graevenitz, Georg; Wagner, Stefan; Harhoff, Dietmar (2013). Incidence and Growth of Patent Thickets: The Impact of Technological Opportunities and Complexity, Journal of Industrial Economics, 61 (3), 521-563. DOI

        Hall, Bronwyn H.; Harhoff, Dietmar (2012). Recent Research on the Economics of Patents, Annual Review of Economics, 4 (1), 541-565. DOI

        • This review surveys recent research on the economics of patents. The topics covered include theoretical and empirical evidence on patents as incentives for innovation, the effectiveness of patents for invention disclosure, patent valuation, and the design of patent systems. We also look at some current policy areas, including software and business method patents, university patenting, and the growth in patent litigation.

        Von Graevenitz, Georg; Wagner, Stefan; Harhoff, Dietmar (2011). How to Measure Patent Thickets: A Novel Approach, Economics Letters, 111 (1), 6-9. DOI

        • This paper provides a direct measure of the density of patent thickets based on patent citations. We discuss the algorithm that generates the measure and present descriptive results validating it. Moreover, we identify technology areas particularly affected by patent thickets.

        Harhoff, Dietmar; Mayrhofer, Philip (2010). Managing User Communities and Hybrid Innovation Processes: Concepts and Design Implications, Organizational Dynamics, 39 (2), 137-144. DOI

          Von Graevenitz, Georg; Harhoff, Dietmar; Weber, Richard (2010). The Effects of Entrepreneurship Education, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 76 (1), 90-112. DOI

          • Entrepreneurship education ranks high on policy agendas in Europe and the US, but little research is available to assess its impact. To help close this gap we investigate whether entrepreneurship education affects intentions to be entrepreneurial uniformly or whether it leads to greater sorting of students. The latter can reduce the average intention to be entrepreneurial and yet be socially beneficial. This paper provides a model of learning in which entrepreneurship education generates signals to students. Drawing on the signals, students evaluate their aptitude for entrepreneurial tasks. The model is tested using data from a compulsory entrepreneurship course. Using ex-ante and ex-post-survey responses from students, we find that intentions to found decline somewhat although the course has significant positive effects on students’ self-assessed entrepreneurial skills. The empirical analysis supports the hypothesis that students receive informative signals and learn about their entrepreneurial aptitude. We outline implications for educators and public policy.

          Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Reichl, Bettina; Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno van (2009). Patent validation at the country level—The role of fees and translation costs, Research Policy, 38 (9), 1423-1437. DOI

            Harhoff, Dietmar (2009). The role of patents and licenses in securing external finance for innovation, EIB Papers - R&D and the financing of innovation in Europe Financing innovative firms, 14 (2), 74-97.

            Harhoff, Dietmar; Wagner, Stefan (2009). The Duration of Patent Examination at the European Patent Office, Management Science, 55 (12), 1969-1984. DOI

            • We analyze the duration and outcomes of patent examination at the European Patent Office utilizing an unusually rich data set covering a random sample of 215,265 applications filed between 1982 and 1998. In our empirical analysis, we distinguish between three groups of determinants: applicant characteristics, indicators of patent quality and value, and determinants that affect the complexity of the examination task. The results from an accelerated failure time model indicate that more controversial claims lead to slower grants but faster withdrawals, whereas well-documented applications are approved faster and withdrawn more slowly. We find strong evidence that applicants accelerate grant proceedings for their most valuable patents, but that they also prolong the battle for such patents if a withdrawal or refusal is imminent. This paper develops implications of these results for managerial decision making in research and development and innovation management.

            Franke, Nikolaus; Gruber, Marc; Harhoff, Dietmar; Henkel, Joachim (2008). Venture Capitalists' Evaluations of Start-Up Teams: Trade-Offs, Knock-Out Criteria, and the Impact of VC Experience, Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 32 (3), 459-483. DOI

            • The start-up team plays a key role in venture capitalists' evaluations of venture proposals. Our findings go beyond existing research, first by providing a detailed exploration of VCs' team evaluation criteria, and second by investigating the moderator variable of VC experience. Our results reveal utility trade-offs between team characteristics and thus provide answers to questions such as “What strength does it take to compensate for a weakness in characteristic A?” Moreover, our analysis reveals that novice VCs tend to focus on the qualifications of individual team members, while experienced VCs focus more on team cohesion. Data were obtained in a conjoint experiment with 51 professionals in VC firms and analyzed using discrete choice econometric models.

            Gambardella, Alfonso; Harhoff, Dietmar; Verspagen, Bart (2008). The value of European patents, European Management Review, 5 (2), 69-84. DOI

            • This paper employs data from an extensive European survey to produce one of the first systematic assessments of the private economic value of patents. The estimated mean of our patent value distribution is higher than 3 million euros, the median is about one-tenth of it, and the mode is around a few thousand euros. This is in line with previous findings about the skewed distribution of patent values. Our measure is significantly correlated with the number of patent citations, references, claims, and countries in which the patent is applied. Citations explain value as much as the other three indicators combined, and the right tail of citations is correlated with the right tail of our value measure. Yet, the four indicators only explain 2.7% of the variance of patent value. Thus, while the use of these indicators as proxies for value, particularly citations, may be justified, predictions based on these indicators carry significant noise. After using country, technology, and patent class fixed effects, we only explain 11.3% of the variation in patent value. The ‘measure of our ignorance’ about the determinants of patent value is then still sizable, which calls for additional research to fill the gap.

            Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin (2007). Institutionalized incentives for ingenuity—Patent value and the German Employees’ Inventions Act, Research Policy, 36 (8), 1143-1162. DOI

            • Germany is one of few countries in which the monetary compensation for inventors is not only determined by negotiations between employer and employee-inventor, but also by relatively precise legal provisions. In this paper, we describe the characteristics of the German Employees’ Inventions Act (GEIA) and discuss which incentives it creates. We rely on responses from a recent survey of 3350 German inventors to test hypotheses regarding this institution. We conclude from our data that the law creates substantial monetary rewards for productive inventors. The qualitative responses from our survey confirm this view, but also point to a number of dysfunctional effects.

            Giuri, Paola; Mariani, Myriam; Brusoni, Stefano; Crespi, Gustavo; Francoz, Dominique; Gambardella, Alfonso; Garcia-Fontes, Walter; Geuna, Aldo; Gonzales, Raul; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Le Bas, Christian; Luzzi, Alessandra; Magazzini, Laura; Nesta, Lionel; Nomaler, Önder; Palomeras, Neus; Patel, Pari; Romanelli, Marzia; Verspagen, Bart (2007). Inventors and invention processes in Europe: Results from the PatVal-EU survey, Research Policy, 36 (8), 1107-1127. DOI

            • Based on a survey of the inventors of 9017 European patented inventions, this paper provides new information about the characteristics of European inventors, the sources of their knowledge, the importance of formal and informal collaborations, the motivations to invent, and the actual use and economic value of the patents.

            Franke, Nikolaus; Gruber, Marc; Harhoff, Dietmar; Henkel, Joachim (2006). What you are is what you like - similarity biases in venture capitalists' evaluations of start-up teams, Journal of Business Venturing, 21 (6), 802-826. DOI

            • This paper extends recent research studying biases in venture capitalist's decision making. We contribute to this literature by analyzing biases arising from similarities between a venture capitalist and members of a venture team. We summarize the psychological foundations of such similarity effects and derive a set of hypotheses regarding the impact of similarity on the assessment of team quality. Using data from a conjoint experiment with 51 respondents, we find that venture capitalists tend to favor teams that are similar to themselves in type of training and professional experience. Our results have important implications for academics and practitioners alike.

            Bond, Stephen; Harhoff, Dietmar; Van Reenen, John (2005). Investment, R&D and Financial Constraints in Britain and Germany, Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, 79/80, 435-462.

            • This paper tests for the importance of cash flow on investment in fixed capital and R&D using firm-level panel data in two countries between 1985 and 1994. For German firms, cash flow is not informative in simple econometric models of fixed investment or R&D. In identical specifications for British firms, cash flow is informative about investment, although not about the level of R&D spending conditional on the R&D participation decision. In the UK, we also find that investment is less sensitive to cash flow for R&D-performing firms, and that cash flow predicts whether firms perform R&D or not. We confirm that these differences do not simply reflect a greater role for current cash flow in forecasting future sales. These results suggest that financial constraints are more significant in Britain, that they affect the decision to engage in R&D rather than the level of R&D spending by participants, and that consequently the British firms that do engage in R&D are a self-selected group where financing constraints tend to be less binding.
            • Ce papier étudie l'effet du cash-flow sur l'investissement en capital fixe et en R&D à partir de données individuelles d'entreprises couvrant deux pays entre 1985 et 1994. Pour les firmes allemandes, le cash-flow n'apparaît pas significatif dans des modèles économétriques simples d'investissement en capital fixe ou en R&D. A partir de spécifications identiques, les estimations pour les firmes du Royaume-Uni montrent un effet significatif du cash-flow sur l'investissement mais pas sur le niveau des dépenses de R&D conditionnellement à la décision d'entreprendre de la R&D. Au Royaume-Uni, nous trouvons également que l'investissement est moins sensible au cash-flow pour les firmes faisant de la R&D et que le cash-flow influence la décision de faire ou non de la R&D. Nous confirmons que ces différences ne reflètent pas simplement un effet plus important du cash-flow courant comme prédicteur des ventes futures. Ces résultats suggèrent que les contraintes financières sont plus significatives au Royaume-Uni, qu'elles affectent la décision d'entreprendre de la R&D plutôt que le niveau des dépenses de R&D des participants, et que par conséquent, les firmes qui entreprennent de la R&D sont un groupe « auto sélectionné » pour lequel les contraintes financières tendent à être moins importantes.
            • http://www.jstor.org/stable/20777584

            Harhoff, Dietmar; Reitzig, Markus (2004). Determinants of Opposition against EPO Patent Grants – The Case of Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals, International journal of industrial organization, 22 (4), 443-480. DOI

            • We analyze the determinants of opposition to biotechnology and pharmaceutical patents granted by the European Patent Office (EPO) between 1978 and 1996. Opposition at the EPO is the most important mechanism by which the validity of a European patent can be challenged. In our sample, 8.6% of the patents are attacked in opposition proceedings. We show empirically that the likelihood of opposition increases with patent value, and that opposition is particularly frequent in areas with strong patenting activity and with high technical or market uncertainty. We comment on the implications of these results for the design of the patent and litigation system.

            Hall, Bronwyn H.; Harhoff, Dietmar (2004). Post Grant Review Systems at the U.S. Patent Office – Design Parameters and Expected Impact, Berkeley Law Technology Journal, 19 (3), 989-1016.

            • Several policy review boards have advocated the introduction of post-grant patent review mechanisms in the U.S patent system. We discuss to what extent “patent quality” has been deteriorating in the U.S. patent system and then consider the expected impact of post-grant review mechanisms as advocated by the policy review boards. We take a detailed look at the experience with the opposition mechanism at the European Patent Office. Our results indicate that a properly designed U.S. post-grant review could generate high welfare gains. We also discuss the design choices faced by policymakers in the United States and provide recommendations.
            • http://www.btlj.org/data/articles/19_03_08.pdf

            Harhoff, Dietmar; Scherer, Frederic M.; Vopel, Katrin (2003). Citations, family size, opposition and the value of patent rights, Research Policy, 32 (8), 1343-1363. DOI

            • We combine estimates of the value of patent rights from a survey of patent-holders with a set of indicator variables in order to model the value of patents. Our results suggest that the number of references to the patent literature as well as the citations a patent receives are positively related to its value. References to the non-patent literature are informative about the value of pharmaceutical and chemical patents, but not in other technical fields. Patents which are upheld in opposition and annulment procedures and patents representing large international patent families are particularly valuable.
            • Publisher's Erratum

            Harhoff, Dietmar; Henkel, Joachim; Hippel, Eric von (2003). Profiting from voluntary information spillovers: How users benefit by freely revealing their innovations, Research Policy, 32 (10), 1753-1769. DOI

            • Empirical studies of innovation have found that end users frequently develop important product and process innovations. Defying conventional wisdom on the negative effects of uncompensated spillovers, innovative users also often openly reveal their innovations to competing users and to manufacturers. Rival users are thus in a position to reproduce the innovation in-house and benefit from using it, and manufacturers are in a position to refine the innovation and sell it to all users, including competitors of the user revealing its innovation. In this paper, we explore the incentives that users might have to freely reveal their proprietary innovations. We then develop a game-theoretic model to explore the effect of these incentives on users’ decisions to reveal or hide their proprietary information. We find that, under realistic parameter constellations, free revealing pays. We conclude by discussing some implications of our findings.

            Fier, Andreas; Harhoff, Dietmar (2002). Die Evolution der bundesdeutschen Forschungs– und Technologiepolitik: Rückblick und Bestandsaufnahme, Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, 3 (3), 279-301. DOI

            • In national innovation systems, universities are not only essential elements of the research infrastructure, but also main players in the field of education and further education. Their specific role in the interplay between knowledge production and market implementation of knowledge via start–ups derives from this fact. This article takes as its theme the university environment which supports and stimulates the start–up processes. It also shows the progress achieved in the German university landscape in recent years on the path towards a culture of entrepreneurship in teaching and research. This is manifested, for example, in the number of start–up chairs, the development of networks to exploit the start–up potential of universities together with regional partners, and in the numbers of spin–offs established.

            Harhoff, Dietmar; Reitzig, Markus (2001). Strategien zur Gewinnmaximierung bei der Anmeldung von Patenten: wirtschaftliche und rechtliche Aspekte als Entscheidungsgrößen beim Schutz von Erfindungen, Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft, 71 (5), 509-529.

              Harhoff, Dietmar; Régibeau, Pierre; Rocket, Katherine E. (2001). Some Simple Economics of Genetically Modified Food, Economic Policy, 16 (33), 263-299.

              Scherer, F. M.; Harhoff, Dietmar (2000). Technology policy for a world of skew-distributed outcomes, Research Policy, 29 (4-5), 559-566. DOI

              • This paper draws implications for technology policy from evidence on the size distribution of returns from eight sets of data on inventions and innovations attributable to private sector firms and universities. The distributions are all highly skew; the top 10% of sample members captured from 48 to 93 percent of total sample returns. It follows that programs seeking to advance technology should not be judged negatively if they lead to numerous economic failures; rather, emphasis should be placed on the relatively few big successes. To achieve noteworthy success with appreciable confidence, a sizeable array of projects must often be supported. The outcome distributions are sufficiently skewed that, even with large numbers of projects, it is not possible to diversify away substantial residual variability through portfolio strategies.

              Harhoff, Dietmar (2000). R&D Spillovers, Technological Proximity, and Productivity Growth - Evidence from German Panel Data, Schmalenbach Business Review, 52 (3), 238-260.

              • This paper studies the effect of R&D spillovers on R&D spending and productivity in a sample of German manufacturing firms. Using panel estimation techniques, the results suggest that spillovers affect industries in a heterogeneous manner. In terms of R&D investment, firms in high-technology sectors appear to react positively and more strongly to spillovers than firms in other industries. Experiments with alternative spillover definitions suggest that the effect is not due to racing phenomena. Moreover, in high-technology industries spillovers have a productivity-enhancing effect in addition to encouraging R&D investment. The effect is conditioned by the firm’s own R&D activity. Consistent with the hypothesis of absorptive capacity, high R&D capital stocks appear to enable firms to profit from external R&D.

              Scherer, F. M.; Harhoff, Dietmar; Kukies, Jörg (2000). Uncertainty and the Size Distribution of Rewards from Innovation, Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 10 (1-2), 175-200. DOI

              • Previous research has shown that the distribution of profit outcomes from technological innovations is highly skew. This paper builds upon those detailed findings to ask: what stochastic processes can plausibly be inferred to have generated the observed distributions? After reviewing the evidence, this paper reports on several stochastic model simulations, including a pure Gibrat random walk with monthly changes approximating those observed for high-technology startup company stocks and a more richly specified model blending internal and external market uncertainties. The most highly specified simulations suggest that the set of profit potentials tapped by innovators is itself skew-distributed and that the number of entrants into innovation races is more likely to be independent of market size than stochastically dependent upon it.

              Harhoff, Dietmar; Narin, Francis; Scherer, F. M.; Vopel, Katrin (1999). Citation Frequency and the Value of Patented Innovation, Review of Economics and Statistics, 81 (3), 511-515.

              • Through a survey, private economic value estimates were obtained on 964 inventions made in the United States and Germany and on which German patent renewal fees were paid to full-term expiration in 1995. A search of subsequent U.S. and German patents yielded counts of citations to those patents. Patents renewed to full-term were significantly more highly cited than patents allowed to expire before their full term. The higher an invention's economic value estimate was, the more the patent was subsequently cited.
              • http://www.jstor.org/stable/2646773

              Harhoff, Dietmar (1999). Firm Formation and Regional Spillovers - Evidence from Germany, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 8 (1-2), 27-55. DOI

              • This paper studies the effect of regional spillovers on the rate of firm formation in two major West German industries for the time period from 1989 to 1993. 1 exploit regional variations in firm formation at the county level to identify the effects of historically given industry structure and employment structure on thc emergence of new firms. The results point to the existence of strong localization and urbanization effects. The emergence of high technology firms seems to be contingent on a heterogeneous historical industry structure, the existence of service providers, and in particular on a high employment share of scientists in universities and extra-university research laboratories.

              Harhoff, Dietmar (1998). Are There Financing Constraints for R&D and Investment in German Manufacturing Firms?, Annales d'Économie et de Statistique, 1998 (49/50), 421-456.

              • Using a newly constructed panel dataset of German enterprises, I estimate R&D and capital investment equations for the time period from 1990 to 1994. Simple accelerator specifications indicate considerable sensitivity of R&D and investment to cash flow for relatively small firms. Much of this effect vanishes once error-correcting behavior is taken into account, but a significant positive relationship between cash flow and investment remains for relatively small firms. In the case of R&D, weak but significant cash flow effects persist both for small and large firms. The evidence from Euler equationi estimates is not conclusive. The investment Euler equation for large firms appears to perform relatively well and yields results close to those expected under the null hypothesis of no financing constraints. The estimates from the Euler equation for R&D are not informative. Additional evidence from survey data suggests that the cash flow sensitivity of investment in small firms is likely to reflect financing constraints. /// À partir d'un panel d'entreprises allemandes nouvellement construit, j'ai estimé des équations d'investissement en R&D et en capital pour la péroide 1990 à 1994. Les spécifications de type "accélérateur" suggèrent une grande sensibilité de l'investissement en R&D par rapport au cash flow pour les petites entreprises. Une partie de ces effets disparaissent lorsqu'une spécification "à erreurs corrigées" est retenue, mais une relation significativement positive entre cash flow et investissement persiste pour les petites entreprises. Pour la R&D, I'impact du cash-flow est faible mais significatif pour les petites et les grandes entreprises. Les résultats obtenus à partir des équations d'Euler sont plus ambigus. Pour les grandes entreprises, les résultats obtenus indiquent une absence de contraintes financières. Les estimations de I'équation d'Euler pour la R&D ne sont toutefois pas très informatives. L'utilisation additionnelle de données d'enquête indique que I'investissement des petites entreprises est sujet à des contraintes financières.
              • http://www.jstor.org/stable/20076124

              Harhoff, Dietmar; Stahl, Konrad; Woywode, Michael (1998). Legal Form, Growth and Exit of West German Firms - Empirical Results for Manufacturing, Construction, Trade and Service Industries, Journal of Industrial Economics, 46 (4), 453-488.

              • Using a sample of approximately 11000 West German firms from all major sectors of the economy, we test predictions on the relationship between legal form, firm survival and employment growth. In our tests, we distinguish between voluntary liquidation without losses to creditors and bankruptcy, that is forced liquidation. We demonstrate that in all sectors firms under limited liability have higher growth and higher insolvency rates than comparable firms under full liability. Firms whose owners are approaching retirement age are characterised by relatively high hazards of voluntary liquidation, while the propensity to declare insolvency is not affected by the owner's age.
              • http://www.jstor.org/stable/117499

              Harhoff, Dietmar; Körting, Timm (1998). Lending Relationships in Germany – Empirical Evidence from Survey Data, Journal of Banking and Finance, 22 (10-11), 1317-1353. DOI

              • We examine empirically the role of lending relationships in determining the costs and collateral requirements for external funds. The data originate from a recently concluded survey of small and medium-sized German firms. In our descriptive analysis, we explore the borrowing patterns and the concentration of borrowing from financial institutions. Using data on L/C interest rates, collateral requirements, and the firm's use of fast payment discounts we find that relationship variables may have some bearing on the price of external funds, but much more so on loan collateralization and availability. Firms in financial distress face comparatively high L/C interest rates and reduced credit availability.

              Harhoff, Dietmar (1998). R&D and Productivity in German Manufacturing Firms, Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 6 (1), 29-49.

              • This paper uses a new firm panel data set to explore the relationship between R&D and productivity in German manufacturing firms for the period from 1979 to 1989. The results confirm the view that K&D is an important determinant of productivity growth. In the cross-section, the elasticity of sales with respect to R&D capital is on the order of 14 per cent. Using fixed-effects estimators yields R&D elasticities of about 8 per cent. Assuming different depreciation rates for R&D capital has virtually no effect on these results. Differencing estimates improve considerably when growth rates are computed over longer time periods, suggesting that the divergence between time-series and cross-sectional estimates is driven by random measurement errors. The paper also considers differences between high technology and other firms. Cross-section and panel elasticity estimates of the R&D effect diverge considerably for the two groups, while the corresponding rate of return estimators display far less variation. There is some evidence that the R&D elasticity increased during the early 1980s, and that it fell sharply back to its 1979 value during the period from 1985 to 1989.

              Harhoff, Dietmar; Moch, Dietmar (1997). Price Indexes for PC Database Software and the Value of Code Compatibility, Research Policy, 26 (4-5), 509-520. DOI

              • Changing product quality poses a challenge for the computation of price indexes, in particular in technologically advanced industries. We assess the differences between traditional and quality-corrected indexes by computing hedonic and matched-model price indexes for personal computer database software. Our database covers the price development in Germany from 1986 to 1994. Quality-adjusted software prices declined by 7.4% according to our hedonic index. Surprisingly, a matched-model index based on linking the prices of directly comparable program versions decreases even faster than the hedonic index (9.3%). This unusual result is apparently caused by the simultaneous selling of old and new versions of a given software product. The estimation results also confirm the importance of network effects. Code compatibility, i.e., the capability of executing programs written for the dominant database product, yields a significant price premium. The ability to read and write data in the dominant spreadsheet format (file compatibility) is also associated with higher prices, but the price differential is much smaller than in the case of code compatibility.

              Harhoff, Dietmar (1997). Innovationsanreize in einem strukturellen Oligopolmodell, Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, 117 (3), 323-364.

                Harhoff, Dietmar; Kane, Thomas J. (1997). Is the German Apprenticeship System a Panacea for the U.S. Labor Market, Journal of Population Economics, 10 (2), 171-196.

                • This paper explores the structure of incentives undergirding the German system of apprenticeship training. We first describe characteristics of the German labor market which may lead firms to accept part of the cost of general training, even in the face of worker turnover. We then compare labor market outcomes for apprentices in Germany and high school graduates in the United States. Apprentices in Germany occupy a similar position within the German wage structure as held by high school graduates in the United States labor market. Finally, we provide evidence that -- in both countries -- the problem of forming labor market bonds is particularly acute for minority youth.
                • http://www.jstor.org/stable/20007537

                Harhoff, Dietmar (1996). Strategic Spillovers and Incentives for Research and Development, Management Science, 42 (6), 907-925.

                • This paper develops a model in which a monopolist supplier can contribute to downstream product improvements by creating knowledge spillovers which downstream firms use as a substitute for their own R&D efforts. Although a market for R&D information does not exist, the supplier may appropriate an indirect return on R&D for two reasons. Sufficiently high levels of spillover information lead to greater downstream product quality, and spillover information reduces the equilibrium sunk cost of R&D for downstream firms and thus facilitates entry. Both effects cause an expansion of downstream output and enhance the demand for the supplier's intermediate good. Given sufficiently strong incentives for supplier R&D, the locus of R&D shifts partially from the downstream to the upstream industry. R&D expenditures, technological opportunities, and downstream industry structure are determined endogenously. Weak appropriability conditions in the downstream industry enhance innovation incentives in the supply sector.
                • http://www.jstor.org/stable/2634603

                Edited Books, Collected Editions

                Harhoff, Dietmar; Lakhani, Karim R. (eds.) (2016). Revolutionizing Innovation: Users, Communities, and Open Innovation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

                  Schwaiger, Manfred; Harhoff, Dietmar (eds.) (2003). Empirie und Betriebswirtschaft - Entwicklungen und Perspektiven. Herausgeberband mit Beiträgen der Jahrestagung des Verbandes der Hochschullehrer für Betriebswirtschaft. München: Schäffer-Pöschel.

                    Harhoff, Dietmar (ed.) (1997). Unternehmensgründungen - Empirische Analysen für die alten und neuen Bundesländer (ZEW-Wirtschaftsanalysen, 7). Baden-Baden: Nomos.

                      Harhoff, Dietmar (ed.) (1995). Preismessung und Technischer Fortschritt (ZEW-Wirtschaftsanalysen - Schriftenreihe des ZEW, 3). Baden-Baden: Nomos.

                        Contributions to Collected Editions

                        Harhoff, Dietmar; Lakhani, Karim R. (2016). Revolutionizing Innovation: Fundamentals and New Perspectives, in: Dietmar Harhoff, Karim R. Lakhani (eds.), Revolutionizing Innovation: Users, Communities, and Open Innovation, 1-24. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

                          Harhoff, Dietmar (2016). Context, Capabilities, and Incentives – The Core and the Periphery of User Innovation, in: Dietmar Harhoff, Karim R. Lakhani (eds.), Revolutionizing Innovation: Users, Communities, and Open Innovation, 27-44. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

                            Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Van der Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno; Vandeput, Charlotte (2016). Languages, Fees and the International Scope of Patenting, in: Victor Ginsburgh, Shlomo Weber (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Economics and Language, 403-422. Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

                            • This paper analyzes firms’ choices regarding the geographic scope of patent protection within the European patent system. We develop an econometric model at the patent level to quantify the impact of office fees and translation costs on firms’ decision to validate a patent in a particular country once it has been granted by the EPO. These costs have been disregarded in previous studies. The results suggest that both translation costs and fees for validation and renewals have a strong influence on the behavior of applicants.
                            • Also published as: Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper No. 15-04

                            Harhoff, Dietmar (2011). The role of patents and licenses in securing external finance for innovation, in: David B. Audretsch, Oliver Falck, Stephan Helbich (eds.), Handbook of Research on Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 55-73. Cheltenham: Elgar.

                              Harhoff, Dietmar (2011). Strategisches Patentmanagement, in: Sönke Albers, Oliver Gassmann (eds.), Handbuch Technologie- und Innovationsmanagement - Strategie, Umsetzung, Controlling, 2. ed. ed., 159-176. Wiesbaden: Gabler.

                                Harhoff, Dietmar (2010). Erfindungen und Innovationen in der globalen Wirtschaft - Zur Entwicklung des Patentsystems, in: S. Leible, A. Ohly, H. Zech (eds.), Wissen - Märkte - Geistiges Eigentum (Geistiges Eigentum und Wettbewerbsrecht, 38), 37-50. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

                                  Harhoff, Dietmar; Schulz, C.; Hoisl, Karin (2007). Intellectual Property, in: Hagen Hof, U. Wengenroth (eds.), Innovationsforschung - Ansätze, Methoden, Grenzen und Perspektiven (Innovationsforschung, 1), 161-170. Hamburg: LIT Verlag.

                                    Harhoff, Dietmar (2006). Patent Quantity and Quality in Europe – Trends and Policy Implications, in: Brain Kahin, Dominique Foray (eds.), Advancing Knowledge and the Knowledge Economy, 331-350. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

                                      Harhoff, Dietmar; Sandner, Philipp (2006). Die Ergebnisse von FuE-Erhebungen als Inputfaktor für Entscheidungsprozesse - Eine explorative Studie, in: Harald Legler, Christoph Grenzmann (eds.), FuE-Aktivitäten der deutschen Wirtschaft: Analysen auf der Basis von FuE-Erhebungen (Materialien zur Wissenschaftsstatistik, 15), 19-24. Essen: NIW u.a.

                                        Harhoff, Dietmar (2005). The Battle for Patent Rights, in: Carine Peeters, Bruno van Pottelsberghe (eds.), Economic and Management Perspectives on Intellectual Property Rights (Applied Econometrics Association Series), 21-39. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

                                          Harhoff, Dietmar (2005). Strategisches Patentmanagement, in: Sönke Albers, Oliver Gassmann (eds.), Handbuch Technologie- und Innovationsmanagement - Strategie, Umsetzung, Controlling, 175-192. Wiesbaden: Gabler.

                                            Harhoff, Dietmar (2005). Innovationen und Wettbewerbspolitik – Ansätze zur ökonomischen Analyse des Patentsystems, in: Monopolkommission (ed.), Zukunftsperspektiven der Wettbewerbspolitik, 73-87. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

                                              Hall, Bronwyn H.; Graham, Stuart; Harhoff, Dietmar; Mowery, David C. (2004). Prospects for Improving U.S. Patent Quality via Postgrant Opposition, in: Adam B. Jaffe, Josh Lerner, Scott Stern (eds.), Innovation Policy and the Economy, 115-143, vol. 4 2004.

                                              • The recent surge in U.S. patenting and the expansion of patentable subject matter has increased patent office backlogs and raised concerns that, in some cases, patents of insufficient quality or with inadequate search of prior art are being issued. At the same time, patent litigation and its costs are rising. This paper explores the potential of a postgrant review process modeled on the European opposition system to improve patent quality, reveal overlooked prior art, and reduce subsequent litigation. We argue that the welfare gains to such a system may be substantial.
                                              • Also available as NBER Working Paper No. 9731, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge MA
                                              • http://www.jstor.org/stable/25056163

                                              Harhoff, Dietmar; Scherer, Frederic M.; Vopel, Katrin (2003). Exploring the Tail of the Patent Value Distribution, in: Ove Granstrand (ed.), Economics, Law and Intellectual Property: Seeking Strategies for Research and Teaching in a Developing Field, 279-309. Boston/Dordrecht/London: Kluwer.

                                                Graham, Stuart J. H.; Hall, Bronwyn H.; Harhoff, Dietmar; Mowery, David C. (2003). Post-Issue Patent Quality Control: A Comparative Study of US Patent Re-Examinations and European Patent Oppositions, in: Wesley M. Cohen, S. A. Merrill (eds.), Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy, 74-119. Washington, D. C.: The National Academic Press.

                                                  Gruber, Marc; Harhoff, Dietmar; Tausend, Christian (2003). Finanzielle Entwicklung junger Wachstumsunternehmen, in: Ann-Kristin Achleitner, Alexander Bassen (eds.), Controlling für junge Unternehmen (Finanzbetrieb), 27-50. Stuttgart: Schaeffer-Poeschel.

                                                    Harhoff, Dietmar; Gruber, Marc (2002). Generierung und nachhaltige Sicherung komparativer Wettbewerbsvorteile, in: Ulrich Hommel, Thomas C. Knecht (eds.), Wertorientiertes Start-up-Management, 320-334. München: Vahlen.

                                                      Harhoff, Dietmar; Ramb, Fred (2001). Investment and Taxation in Germany - Evidence from Firm-Level Panel Data, in: Deutsche Bundesbank (ed.), Investing Today for the World of Tomorrow, 47-73. Heidelberg: Springer.

                                                        Harhoff, Dietmar (2000). Are There Financing Constraints for R&D and Investment in German Manufacturing Firms?, in: David Encaoua et al. (ed.), The Economics and Econometrics of Innovation, 399-434. Boston/Dordrecht/London: Kluwer.

                                                        • Using a newly constructed panel dataset of German enterprises, I estimate R&D and capital investment equations for the time period from 1990 to 1994. Simple accelerator specifications indicate considerable sensitivity of R&D and investment to cash flow for relatively small firms. Much of this effect vanishes once error-correcting behavior is taken into account, but a significant positive relationship between cash flow and investment remains for relatively small firms. In the case of R&D, weak but significant cash flow effects persist both for small and large firms. The evidence from Euler equationi estimates is not conclusive. The investment Euler equation for large firms appears to perform relatively well and yields results close to those expected under the null hypothesis of no financing constraints. The estimates from the Euler equation for R&D are not informative. Additional evidence from survey data suggests that the cash flow sensitivity of investment in small firms is likely to reflect financing constraints. /// À partir d'un panel d'entreprises allemandes nouvellement construit, j'ai estimé des équations d'investissement en R&D et en capital pour la péroide 1990 à 1994. Les spécifications de type "accélérateur" suggèrent une grande sensibilité de l'investissement en R&D par rapport au cash flow pour les petites entreprises. Une partie de ces effets disparaissent lorsqu'une spécification "à erreurs corrigées" est retenue, mais une relation significativement positive entre cash flow et investissement persiste pour les petites entreprises. Pour la R&D, I'impact du cash-flow est faible mais significatif pour les petites et les grandes entreprises. Les résultats obtenus à partir des équations d'Euler sont plus ambigus. Pour les grandes entreprises, les résultats obtenus indiquent une absence de contraintes financières. Les estimations de I'équation d'Euler pour la R&D ne sont toutefois pas très informatives. L'utilisation additionnelle de données d'enquête indique que I'investissement des petites entreprises est sujet à des contraintes financières.

                                                        Harhoff, Dietmar (1999). Comment on James R. Markusen, Global Investment Liberalization: Effects on Labor and the Location/Agglomeration of High-Tech Activities and Production, in: Horst Siebert (ed.), Globalization and Labor, 108-115. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

                                                          Harhoff, Dietmar (1999). Comment on Alexander Gerybadze, Multinationale Unternehmen und nationale Innovationssysteme – Konflikt oder Komplementarität, in: Otto G. Mayer, Hans-Eckart Scharrer (eds.), Internationale Unternehmensstrategien und nationale Standortpolitik (Veröffentlichungen des HWWA-Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung, Hamburg, 53), 123-128. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

                                                            Harhoff, Dietmar (1999). Comment on Johann Szenzenstein, Die Behandlung von Qualitätsänderungen im Preisindex für die Lebenshaltung, in: Volkswirtschaftliche Forschungsgruppe der Deutschen Bundesbank (ed.), Zur Diskussion über den Verbraucherpreisindex als Inflationsindikator (Diskussionspapier, 3/99), 65-82. Frankfurt am Main: Deutsche Bundesbank.

                                                              Harhoff, Dietmar (1999). Vertical Organization, Technology Flows and R&D Incentives, in: Dennis C. Mueller, A. Haid, J. Weigand (eds.), Competition, Efficiency, and Welfare. Essays in Honor of Manfred Neumann, 57-82. Boston/Dordrecht/London: Kluwer.

                                                                Harhoff, Dietmar (1999). Innovation Objectives, Managerial Education and Firm Performance, in: Klaus Brockhoff, Alok K. Chakrabarti, Jürgen Hauschildt (eds.), The Dynamics of Innovation, 133-160. Berlin: Springer.

                                                                  Harhoff, Dietmar; Röller, L.-H. (1999). Entwicklung und Perspektiven der bundesrepublikanischen Beihilfepolitik, in: Max Kaase, Schmid (eds.), Eine lernende Demokratie - 50 Jahre Bundesrepublik Deutschland, WZB-Jahrbuch 1999, 461-498. Berlin: Edition Sigma.

                                                                    Harhoff, Dietmar (1998). Trends in Long-Term Employment in the United States, 1979-1996, in: Deutsch-Amerikanisches Konzil (ed.), Arbeitsmärkte in den USA und Deutschland, 288-297. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

                                                                      Harhoff, Dietmar (1998). Die Finanzierung von Innovationsprojekten, in: Nikolaus Franke, Christoph-Friedrich von Braun (eds.), Innovationsforschung und Technologiemanagement. Konzepte, Strategien, Fallbeispiele, 233-248. Berlin: Springer. DOI

                                                                      • Für kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU) in Deutschland spielt die Fremdfinanzierung durch Banken eine besonders große Rolle. Allerdings stellen Kredite nur für Investitionsprojekte die bevorzugte Finanzierungsquelle dar, während Innovationen hauptsächlich aus dem Innenfinanzierungsspielraum finanziert werden. Die Bevorzugung interner Finanzierungsquellen wird u. U. durch Informationsasymmetrien hervorgerufen, die eine Fremdfinanzierung insbesondere für kleine und junge Unternehmen prohibitiv teuer machen. Dieser Artikel stellt bisherige Ergebnisse zur Frage von Finanzierungsrestriktionen in einer Literaturübersicht dar und nutzt dann Daten aus einer jüngst abgeschlossenen Unternehmensbefragung, um spezifische Fragen zu beleuchten. Die Datenanalyse zeigt, daß kleine und relativ junge Unternehmen besonders häufig angeben, daß mangelnder Zugang zu zusätzlichem Eigen- und Fremdkapital die Durchführung von Investitionen und Innovationen behindert. Vertrauen und eine relativ lange Geschäftsbeziehung zwischen der wichtigsten Bank und dem Unternehmen sowie eine Konzentration der Fremdkapitalaufnahme auf relativ wenige Banken verbessern die Verfügbarkeit von Fremdkapital. Kleine und junge Unternehmen sehen sich allerdings generell benachteiligt. Ein Gedankenexperiment deutet allerdings auch darauf hin, daß Manager und Eigentümer eine Fremdfinanzierung häufig nicht zur Finanzierung von Projekten heranziehen würden, um nicht in ihrer Entscheidungsfreiheit eingeschränkt zu sein.
                                                                      • For small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Germany, debt finance supplied by banks assumes a particularly prominent role. Yet, loans are the preferred source of finance for investment only, while innovation projects are typically financed out of cash flow. This preference for internal finance is presumably caused by information asymmetries which make external finance prohibitively expensive for small and young firms. This article summarizes prior studies on the incidence of financing constraints and uses recently collected firm-level data to explore particular issues. The data analysis demonstrates that small and relatively young enterprises are particularly likely to indicate that lack of new equity or debt finance is an impediment to investment and innovation activities. Trust between bank and firm, a relatively long duration of the lending relationship, and limiting the borrowing relationships to just a few creditors tend to improve financing conditions. Data from a thought experiment suggest that managers and owners will frequently not use external finance (even if available), since the involvement of banks would limit some form of dependence.

                                                                      Harhoff, Dietmar; Steil, Fabian (1997). Die ZEW-Gründungspanels: Konzeptionelle Überlegungen und Analysepotential, in: Dietmar Harhoff (ed.), Unternehmensgründungen - Empirische Analysen für die alten und neuen Bundesländer (ZEW-Wirtschaftsanalysen, 7), 11-28. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

                                                                        Harhoff, Dietmar; Licht, Georg (1995). F&E und Innovation – Meßversuche an einem Eisberg, in: Klaus Löbbe (ed.), Innovationen, Investitionen und Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der deutschen Wirtschaft (Untersuchungen des Rheinisch-Westfälischen Instituts für Wirtschaftsforschung, 16), 11-28. Essen: Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung.

                                                                          Harhoff, Dietmar (1995). Methodik und Einsatz hedonischer Preisindizes - Ein Überblick, in: Dietmar Harhoff, Michael Müller (eds.), Preismessung und technischer Fortschritt (ZEW-Wirtschaftsanalysen, 3), 37-60. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

                                                                            Harhoff, Dietmar (1995). Agglomerationen und regionale Spillovereffekte, in: Bernhard Gahlen, Helmut Hesse, Hans Jürgen Ramser (eds.), Standort und Region. Neue Ansätze zur Regionalökonomik (Wirtschaftswissenschaftliches Seminar Ottobeuren, 24), 83-115. Tübingen: Mohr.

                                                                              Harhoff, Dietmar; Stahl, Konrad (1994). Unternehmensentwicklung in den neuen Bundesländern - Erste empirische Ergebnisse, in: Heinz König, Viktor Steiner (eds.), Arbeitsmarktdynamik und Unternehmensentwicklung in Ostdeutschland (ZEW-Wirtschaftsanalysen, 1), 207-251. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

                                                                                Harhoff, Dietmar; Licht, Georg (1994). Das Mannheimer Unternehmenspanel, in: Uwe Hochmuth, J. Wagner (eds.), Firmenpanelstudien in Deutschland - Konzeptionelle Überlegungen und empirische Analysen (Tübinger volkswirtschaftliche Schriften, 6), 255-284. Tübingen: Francke.

                                                                                  Harhoff, Dietmar; Woywode, Michael J. (1994). Überlebenschancen von Unternehmen - Eine empirische Analyse auf der Basis des Mannheimer Unternehmenspanels, in: Jürgen Schmude (ed.), Neue Unternehmen - Interdisziplinäre Beiträge zur Gründungsforschung (Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Beiträge, 108), 110-126. Heidelberg: Physica.

                                                                                    Harhoff, Dietmar; Kane, Thomas J. (1994). Financing Apprenticeship Training: Evidence from Germany, in: N. Stacey (ed.), School-to-Work: What Does Research Say about it?, Washington, D. C.: Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED).

                                                                                      Harhoff, Dietmar; Felder, J.; Licht, G.; Nerlinger, E. (1994). Ausgewählte Ergebnisse aus der ersten Welle des Mannheimer Innovationspanels, in: Christoph Grenzmann, M. Müller (eds.), Wissenschafts- und Technologieindikatoren, Technologische Innovationen, 39-69 (Materialien zur Wissenschaftsstatistik, 8), Essen.

                                                                                        Harhoff, Dietmar (1993). Das Wachstum von Unternehmen - Erfahrungen in den USA und Entwicklungen in den neuen Bundesländern, in: Cord Jacobeit, Ute Sacksofsky, Peter Wenzel (eds.), Die USA am Beginn der neunziger Jahre - Politik, Wirtschaft und Recht, 113-135. Opladen: Leske und Budrich.

                                                                                        Harhoff, Dietmar; König, Heinz (1993). Neuere Ansätze der Industrieökonomik - Konsequenzen für eine Industrie- und Technologiepolitik, in: Frieder Meyer-Krahmer (ed.), Innovationsökonomie und Technologiepolitik: Forschungsansätze und politische Konsequenzen (Technik, Wirtschaft und Politik, 1), 47-67. Heidelberg: Physica.

                                                                                          Harhoff, Dietmar; Stahl, Konrad (1993). Unternehmensentwicklung in den neuen Bundesländern, in: ZEW Wirtschaftsanalysen, vol. 1, 90-112. Baden-Baden: Nomos.

                                                                                            Harhoff, Dietmar; Schrader, S. (1992). The Effect of CEO Education and Career Background on Technology Strategy: Statistical Evidence from the United States, in: C. Karlsson (ed.), Proceedings of the International Product Development Management Conference on New Approaches to Development and Engineering, 205-219. Brüssel: European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management.

                                                                                              Editorials

                                                                                              Kur, Annette; Harhoff, Dietmar (2014). Great Data, Nice Tale, But What's the Message? The OHIM/EPO Study on the Economic Relevance of IP-Intensive Industries in the EU, IIC - international review of intellectual property and competition law, 45 (6), 617-620. DOI

                                                                                              • In September 2013, EPO and OHIM jointly launched a Report on the economic performance of IP-intensive industries in the EU. Ever since its publication, the Report has been cited as bearing proof to the economic importance of IP, thereby bolstering claims for further enforcement-enhancing measures and policies. However, the eagerness with which the Report is instrumentalized for political purposes ignores the fact that, as the economists performing the study themselves have emphasized, their findings do not provide evidence regarding the causal relationship between IP and the economic data. Instead of serving a better understanding of the economics of IP, such politically tainted over-interpretations might actually discredit the analytical results and the advances in setting up a comprehensive database of IPR utilization at the firm level.
                                                                                              • Also published as Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Discussion Paper ; No. 1
                                                                                              • intp
                                                                                              • Available at SSRN

                                                                                              Further Publications, Press Articles, Interviews

                                                                                              Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation (EFI); Backes-Gellner, Uschi; Böhringer, Christoph; Cantner, Uwe; Harhoff, Dietmar; Ott, Ingrid; Schnitzer, Monika (eds.) (2017). Gutachten zu Forschung, Innovation und technologischer Leistungsfähigkeit Deutschlands 2017. Berlin: EFI.

                                                                                              Harhoff, Dietmar; Hilty, Reto M.; Bechthold, Laura Aline; Jablonka, Claudius; Nothelfer, Stefan; Suyer, Alexander (2016). Urheberrecht und Innovation in digitalen Märkten - Studie im Auftrag des Bundesjustizministeriums der Justiz und für Verbraucherschutz. München: Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb.

                                                                                              Harhoff, Dietmar (2016). Economy and Civil Society: How Innovation Drives Change, CESifo Forum, 16 (3), 38-43.

                                                                                                Harhoff, Dietmar (2016). Digitale Kluft droht - Interview, Unternehmeredition, (3), 14.

                                                                                                  Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation (EFI); Backes-Gellner, Uschi; Böhringer, Christoph; Cantner, Uwe; Harhoff, Dietmar; Ott, Ingrid; Schnitzer, Monika (eds.) (2016). Gutachten zu Forschung, Innovation und technologischer Leistungsfähigkeit Deutschlands 2016. Berlin: EFI.

                                                                                                  Harhoff, Dietmar (2015). Europas digitale Mühe - Gastkommentar, Neue Zürcher Zeitung 22.10.2015, 12.

                                                                                                  Broy, Manfred; Harhoff, Dietmar (2015). Industrie 4.0 ist erst der Anfang, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung 13.04.2015, 18.

                                                                                                    Harhoff, Dietmar; Cuntz, Alexander (2015). Digitale Transformation – Quo vadis, Deutschland?, Zeitschrift für Politikberatung, 7 (4), 176-188.

                                                                                                    • Der vorliegende Beitrag analysiert - aufbauend auf dem Jahresgutachten 2016 der Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation - Wertschöpfungsprozesse, mit denen neue Ideen, Erfindungen und Innovationen im Zuge der "digitalen Transformation" umgesetzt werden. Dazu werden aus ökonomischer Sicht der Status quo und die wirtschaftlichen Potenziale der digitalen Transformation in Deutschland untersucht. Besonderes Augenmerk erfahren zwei Themenbereiche: die Rolle internetbasierter Gründertätigkeit in Deutschland und die Nutzung sogenannter digitaler Geschäftsmodelle in etablierten Unternehmen. Der Beitrag kommentiert darüber hinaus Handlungsoptionen für die Forschungs- und Innovationspolitik (F&I-Politik), die im Zuge des disruptiven Wandels entstehen.

                                                                                                    Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation (EFI); Backes-Gellner, Uschi; Böhringer, Christoph; Foray, Dominique; Harhoff, Dietmar; Ott, Ingrid; Schnitzer, Monika (eds.) (2015). Gutachten zu Forschung, Innovation und technologischer Leistungsfähigkeit Deutschlands 2015. Berlin: EFI.

                                                                                                    Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation (EFI); Backes-Gellner, Uschi; Böhringer, Christoph; Foray, Dominique; Gerybadze, Alexander; Harhoff, Dietmar; Schnitzer, Monika (eds.) (2014). Gutachten zu Forschung, Innovation und technologischer Leistungsfähigkeit Deutschlands 2014. Berlin: EFI.

                                                                                                    Kommission HdF2014plus; Harhoff, Dietmar (eds.) (2014). Kooperationsmodell Haus der Forschung sowie Bayerische Patentallianz – Empfehlungen zur Weiterentwicklung durch die Kommission HdF2014plus. München: Bayerisches Staatsministerium für Bildung und Kultus, Wissenschaft und Kunst.

                                                                                                    Harhoff, Dietmar (2014). Urheberrecht: Ein Jahr der (Denk-)blockaden, Das Netz 2014/2015. Jahresrückblick Netzpolitik 2014, 117-118.

                                                                                                    Vlaeminck, Sven; Wagner, Gert G.; Wagner, Joachim; Harhoff, Dietmar; Siegert, Olaf (2013). Replizierbare Forschung in den Wirtschaftswissenschaften erhöhen — eine Herausforderung für wissenschaftliche Infrastrukturdienstleister, LIBREAS. Library Ideas - Schwerpunkt: Forschungsdaten. Metadaten. Noch mehr Daten. Forschungsdatenmanagement, (23), 29-42.

                                                                                                    • In den Wirtschaftswissenschaften werden empirische Untersuchungen zur Über-prüfung und Weiterentwicklung von theoretischen Modellen immer wichtiger. Dies schlägt sich auch in einer steigenden Anzahl von empirischen Beiträgen in Fachzeitschriften nieder, bei denen Wirtschaftsforschende eigene Forschungsdaten erhoben oder externe Datensätze verarbeitet haben. Allerdings gibt es bislang kaum effektive Möglichkeiten, diese Forschungsergebnisse im Kontext der zugehörigen Zeitschriftenartikel zu replizieren, zu prüfen oder für eine Nachnutzung und zur Unterstützung des wissenschaftlichen Diskurses bereit zu stellen.
                                                                                                    • Empirical studies to verify and refine theoretical models are increasingly important in economics. This is also reflected in a rising number of empirical contributions to journals where authors have collected their own research data or used external datasets. However, so far there have been few effective means to replicate the published results within the framework of the corresponding article, to verify it, to make it available for repurposing or to use it to support scholarly debate. Our article reflects some of the principal reasons why economic research often is not replicable and suggests recommendations on how to meet these challenges.
                                                                                                    • http://libreas.eu/ausgabe23/06vlaeminck/

                                                                                                    Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation (EFI); Backes-Gellner, Uschi; Böhringer, Christoph; Gerybadze, Alexander; Harhoff, Dietmar; Llerena, Patrick; Schnitzer, Monika (eds.) (2013). Gutachten zu Forschung, Innovation und technologischer Leistungsfähigkeit in Deutschland 2013. Berlin: EFI.

                                                                                                    Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation (EFI); Backes-Gellner, Uschi; Gerybadze, Alexander; Harhoff, Dietmar; Llerena, Patrick; Luther, Joachim; Schnitzer, Monika (eds.) (2012). Gutachten zu Forschung, Innovation und technologischer Leistungsfähigkeit in Deutschland 2012. Berlin: EFI.

                                                                                                    Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation (EFI); Achleitner, Ann-Christin; Allmendinger, Jutta; Gerybadze, Alexander; Harhoff, Dietmar; Llerena, Patrick; Luther, Joachim (eds.) (2011). Gutachten zu Forschung, Innovation und technologischer Leistungsfähigkeit in Deutschland 2011. Berlin: EFI.

                                                                                                    Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation (EFI); Achleitner, Ann-Christin; Allmendinger, Jutta; Gerybadze, Alexander; Harhoff, Dietmar; Llerena, Patrick; Luther, Joachim (eds.) (2010). Gutachten zu Forschung, Innovation und technologischer Leistungsfähigkeit in Deutschland 2010. Berlin: EFI.

                                                                                                    Von Graevenitz, Georg; Harhoff, Dietmar (2010). The Impact of Recessions on the Utilization of Intellectual Property - Report for the World Intellectual Property Organization.

                                                                                                      Harhoff, Dietmar (2009). Economic Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Unified and Integrated European Patent Litigation System, Final Report to the European Commission.

                                                                                                      • The patent system in Europe is still incomplete. Appropriating returns from patented technology is impaired by the fact that patent-holders may have to enforce their patent rights in multiple courts. Moreover, third parties interested in showing that particular patent rights have been granted erroneously are disadvantaged by having to initiate revocation proceedings in multiple jurisdictions. Given that the successful pursuit of these two objectives can generate welfare gains for the European economy, a unified European patent litigation system has immediate appeal. The current study seeks to provide approximate cost and benefit calculations in order to inform policy-makers in Europe about the choices they face in this important field of public policy. The study groups cost and benefit effects into the following categories: (i) effects from avoiding duplication of litigation; (ii) effects from changes in the demand for litigation, induced by changes in the cost structure; (iii) effects from changed incentives for patenting. Towards performing an assessment of the first two effects, the report collects data from a variety of sources in order to support the estimates and to test the plausibility of a number of necessary assumptions. Given that no official data on the incidence, outcomes and cost of patent litigation exist, an effort is made to triangulate data and estimates in order to demonstrate that the approximations are justified. The following results are particularly important. Avoiding duplication of infringement and revocation cases is likely to generate large benefits for the European economy. The results obtained here suggest that currently, between 146 and 311 infringement cases are being duplicated annually in the EU Member States. By 2013, this number is likely to increase to between 202 and 431 duplicated cases. Total private savings from having access to a unified Patent Court in 2013 would span the interval between EUR 148 and 289 million. An assessment of the operating costs of the proposed Patent Court is obviously subject to a large number of caveats. Based on data from earlier efforts (in particular the Working Party on Litigation set up under the auspices of the European Patent Organisation), an upper-bound estimate for the operating costs of a court with a capacity of 940 cases indicates that the Court would cause operating costs of EUR 27.5 million. Hence, the cost-benefit assessment focusing on avoided duplication leads to a highly positive evaluation of the proposal. Even if the low estimate of savings (EUR 148 million) is taken, the new system would create substantial benefits and reach a benefit-cost ratio of 5.4. However, this view may be unduly conservative, and the benefit-cost ratio could be as high as 10.5. Additional benefits could flow in case of additional litigation activity, be it in terms of infringement or revocation actions. The availability of a low-cost litigation path offered by a unified Patent Court is likely to lead to additional activity from parties in countries which currently do not use the European patent system extensively. Moreover, the cost level of litigation in the unified Patent Court system is likely to be below the cost levels currently observed in some Member States and parties in these Member States are also likely to engage in more litigation activity in the medium-run. These effects will also contribute to generate private and public benefits. The above estimates and considerations are based on the assumption that the unified Patent Court will offer litigation at roughly the same cost level as the three largest low-cost national systems. In a robustness check, the report explores to what extent the gains from saved duplication would be dissipated if the cost level were higher. The computations show that even with a substantial average cost increase, benefit-cost ratios remain above one, and for most scenarios considerably above one. It is more difficult to predict cost-induced changes in the demand for litigation. The relevance of such changes will depend on the level and type of costs imposed on users of the new system. These will be mostly determined by the private costs for legal support and advice, but also by the fees levied by the Court itself. Measures to contain the private costs to parties in litigation are important, and the Presidency’s proposal includes a number of such measures which are discussed in the report with respect to their impact. A particularly promising measure is to admit representation of parties by specialized European Patent Attorneys. Another measure of importance is the contribution from the Community budget and from States which are not EU Member States to the Court’s budget, in order to keep fees at low levels. The report also discusses – in a qualitative manner – effects which emerge from changes in patenting and litigation incentives. It is argued that effects will be beneficial if the unified patent litigation system puts emphasis on fast and low-cost proceedings, high quality judgement, and a fair balance between the legitimate interests of patent holders and alleged infringers. It is emphasized that particularly strong positive welfare contributions can be expected if an effective and rapid, low-cost revocation procedure is available. The latter feature should provide an effective means against strategic and (possibly) frivolous litigation activity which could be mounted in the future by “patent trolls”. The report also comments on particular design choices in the Presidency’s proposal. To summarize, this report recommends strongly that the Presidency should proceed in its efforts to establish a unified and integrated patent litigation system for European patents and future Community patents. For conservative estimates of the relevant parameters, the economic benefits from such a system are likely to exceed the costs of the establishment and operation of the new court by a large multiple of between 5.4 and 10.5. Moreover, with prudent design choices it should be possible to implement a litigation system that will be balanced and supportive of overall efforts to improve the quality of patents in Europe.
                                                                                                      • http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/indprop/docs/patent/studies/litigation_system_en.pdf

                                                                                                      Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation (EFI); Harhoff, Dietmar; Allmendinger, Jutta; Achleitner, Ann-Christin; Llerena, Patrick; Luther, Joachim (eds.) (2009). Gutachten zu Forschung, Innovation und technologischer Leistungsfähigkeit in Deutschland 2009. Berlin: EFI.

                                                                                                      Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation (EFI); Harhoff, Dietmar; Grupp, Hariolf; Achleitner, Ann-Christin; Allmendinger, Jutta; Luther, Joachim (eds.) (2008). Gutachten zu Forschung, Innovation und technologischer Leistungsfähigkeit in Deutschland 2008. Berlin: EFI.

                                                                                                      Harhoff, Dietmar (2006). Intellectual Property Rights in Europe – Where do We Stand and Where Should We Go?, 2006.

                                                                                                      • Intellectual property rights (IPRs) have recently been subject to numerous, sometimes highly controversial debates in Europe. An arcane technical matter prior to the 1990s, the design of IPR systems now attracts attention, not only among the users of the respective IPR systems, but also more broadly among the citizens of Europe. It is generally accepted that IPRs can play an important role for fostering innovation, but the design choices for IPR systems remain contested. Some of the renewed interest is created by the perception that over the last decades, the IPR systems have strengthened the position of rights owners over those of the users of protected subject matter. This chapter argues that this perception is at least partly correct. In the field of copyright, technical and legal developments have contributed to a shift of control towards commerical content providers. In the area of patent rights, changes in the behavior of applicants have led to strong increases in the demand for patent protection, coupled with some signs of quality deterioration in the patent system. While Europe may have fared relatively well when compared to the US, problems are emerging in the EU as well. From an economic perspective, there is a need for harmonizing European adminstrative and legal practices in the area of IPRs while increasing the quality standards used in these system. Moreover, a new balance between the owners of rights and users of the protected subject matter needs to be found in many fields.
                                                                                                      • https://www.researchgate.net/publication/240696278_Intellectual_Property_Rights_in_Europe_-_Where_do_We_Stand_and_Where_Should_We_Go

                                                                                                      Harhoff, Dietmar (2005). Patente – Fluch oder Segen für Innovationen, Zeitschrift für betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung, Sonderheft 54 (6), 80-104.

                                                                                                        Webb, Colin; Dernis, Hélène; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin (2005). Analysing European and International Patent Citations - A Set of EPO Patent Database Building Blocks (STI Working Paper./9). Paris: OECD.

                                                                                                        Harhoff, Dietmar; Gruber, M. (2002). Campus Companies - Meinungsspiegel der Betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung und Praxis, Betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung und Praxis, 54 (4), 388-401.

                                                                                                          Bellmann, Lutz; Harhoff, Dietmar; Schulz, Norbert (2000). Daten zur Analyse des Gründungsgeschehens – Erwiderung auf die Anmerkungen von Michael Fritsch, Udo Brixy und Michael Niese, ifo-Studien, 2/2000, 279-281.

                                                                                                            Harhoff, Dietmar; Franke, N.; Lüthje, C. (2000). Studenten als Unternehmensgründer – Eine empirische Analyse, unpublished manuscript, Institut für Innovationsforschung und Technologiemanagement (INNO-tec), University Munich.

                                                                                                              Bellmann, Lutz; Harhoff, Dietmar; Schulz, Norbert (1999). Zur Analyse von Gründungen und Schließungen auf Grundlage der Beschäftigtenstatistik, ifo-Studien, 3/1999, 435-447.

                                                                                                              • Diese Arbeit quantifiziert Verzerrungen, die sich bei der Verwendung von Daten aus der IAB-Beschäftigtenstatistik in Analysen von Betriebsgründungen und -schließungen ergeben können. Wir zeigen, daß bisherige Studien von Gründungs- und Schließungsdaten ausgegangen sind, die im Mittel aller Industrien um mindestens 44 Prozent bei Gründungen bzw. 39 Prozent bei Schließungen zu hoch liegen. Eine Varianzzerlegung zeigt, daß die Verzerrungen in erheblichem Ausmaß durch industrieund zeitspezifische Komponenten erklärt werden können und damit größtenteils systematischer Natur sind. Korrekturen dieser Verzerrungen sind zwar möglich, müssen aber Tradeoffs hinsichtlich der Datenverfügbarkeit" (insbesondere für Panelstudien) berücksichtigen.

                                                                                                              Harhoff, Dietmar; Stahl, Konrad O. (1995). Unternehmens- und Beschäftigungsdynamik in Westdeutschland – Zum Einfluß von Haftungsregeln und Eigentümerstruktur, Ifo-Studien, 41 (1), 17-50.

                                                                                                                Harhoff, Dietmar; Felder, Johannes; Licht, Georg; Nerlinger, Eric; Stahl, Harald (1995). Innovationsverhalten der deutschen Wirtschaft: Ein Vergleich zwischen Ost- und Westdeutschland (Dokumentation, 95-03). Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung.

                                                                                                                  Harhoff, Dietmar; Felder, Johannes; Licht, Georg; Nerlinger, Eric; Stahl, Harald (1995). Innovationsverhalten der deutschen Wirtschaft. Dokumentation der Innovationshemmnisse 1994, Bericht im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie. Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung.

                                                                                                                    Harhoff, Dietmar; Felder, Johannes; Licht, Georg; Nerlinger, Eric; Stahl, Harald (1995). Innovationsverhalten der deutschen Wirtschaft. Ergebnisse der Innovationserhebung 1994, Bericht im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie. Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung.

                                                                                                                      Harhoff, Dietmar; Beise, M.; Felder, Johannes; Licht, Georg; Nerlinger, Eric; Stahl, Harald (1995). Innovationsverhalten der deutschen Wirtschaft - Innovationsverhalten kleiner und mittlerer Unternehmen, Bericht im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie. Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung.

                                                                                                                        Harhoff, Dietmar (1994). Telekommunikationsinfrastruktur und Wirtschaftswachstum in den Neuen Bundesländern, Bericht im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Post und Telekommunikation. Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung.

                                                                                                                          Harhoff, Dietmar (1994). Die steuerliche Behandlung von FuE-Aufwendungen - Eine internationale Bestandsaufnahme (Dokumentation, 94-02). Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung.

                                                                                                                            Harhoff, Dietmar; Felder, Johannes; Licht, Georg; Nerlinger, Eric; Stahl, Harald (1994). Innovationsverhalten der deutschen Wirtschaft. Ergebnisse der Innovationserhebung 1993 (Dokumentation, 94-01). Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung.

                                                                                                                              Harhoff, Dietmar; Felder, Johannes; Licht, Georg; Nerlinger, Eric; Stahl, Harald (1994). Innovationsverhalten der deutschen Wirtschaft, Methodenbericht zur Innovationserhebung 1993 (Dokumentation, 94-06). Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung.

                                                                                                                                Harhoff, Dietmar; Felder, Johannes; Licht, Georg; Nerlinger, Eric; Stahl, Harald (1994). The Community Innovation Survey in the Federal Republic of Germany: Final Report, Bericht im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie für EUROSTAT und die Europäische Kommission DG XIII. Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung.

                                                                                                                                  Harhoff, Dietmar (1991). Unternehmensgründungen in den neuen Bundesländern, ZEW Newsletter, 1 (1), 11-14.

                                                                                                                                    Monographies

                                                                                                                                    Brügge, Bernd; Harhoff, Dietmar; Picot, Arnold; Creighton, Oliver; Fiedler, Marina; Henkel, Joachim (2004). Open Source Software – Technische und ökonomische Aspekte (Open Source Software – Technical and Economic Aspects). Berlin: Springer.

                                                                                                                                      Harhoff, Dietmar; Jacobs, Otto H.; Ramb, Fred; Schmidt, Frank; Spengel, Christoph (1998). Unternehmenssteuerreform, Innovationsförderung und Zukunftsinvestitionen (ZEW- Wirtschaftsanalysen - Schriftenreihe des ZEW, 26). Baden-Baden: Nomos.

                                                                                                                                        Harhoff, Dietmar; Licht, Georg; Beise, M.; Felder, J.; Nerlinger, E.; Stahl, H. (1996). Innovationsaktivitäten kleiner und mittlerer Unternehmen - Ergebnisse des Mannheimer Innovationspanels (ZEW-Wirtschaftsanalysen - Schriftenreihe des ZEW, 8). Baden-Baden: Nomos.

                                                                                                                                          Harhoff, Dietmar (1996). Innovation in German Manufacturing Firms - Empirical Studies on Productivity, Externalities, Corporate Finance and Taxation. Unpublished Habilitation, Fakultät Volkswirtschaftslehre und Statistik, Universität Mannheim.

                                                                                                                                            Harhoff, Dietmar (1991). Strategic Spillover Production, Vertical Organization, and Incentives for Research and Development, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

                                                                                                                                              Open Access

                                                                                                                                              Cremers, Katrin; Gaessler, Fabian; Harhoff, Dietmar; Helmers, Christian; Lefouilid, Yassine (2016). Invalid but Infringed? An Analysis of the Bifurcated Patent Litigation System, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 131 (PA), 218-242. DOI

                                                                                                                                              • In bifurcated patent litigation systems, claims of infringement and validity of a patent are decided independently of each other in separate court proceedings at different courts. In non-bifurcated systems, infringement and validity are decided jointly in the same proceedings at a single court. We build a model that shows the key trade-off between bifurcated and non-bifurcated systems and how it affects the incentives of plaintiffs and defendants in patent infringement cases. Using detailed data on patent litigation cases in Germany (bifurcated) and the U.K. (non-bifurcated), we show that bifurcation creates situations in which a patent is held infringed that is subsequently invalidated. We also show that having to challenge a patent's validity in separate court proceedings under bifurcation implies that alleged infringers are less likely to do so. We find this to apply in particular to more resource-constrained alleged infringers. Finally, we find parties to be more likely to settle in a bifurcated system.
                                                                                                                                              • SSRN

                                                                                                                                              Discussion Papers

                                                                                                                                              Dorner, Matthias; Harhoff, Dietmar (2017). A Novel Technology-Industry Concordance Table Based on Linked Inventor-Establishment Data, Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition Research Paper, No. 17-10.

                                                                                                                                              • Mapping technologies into industries is frequently required in empirical innovation studies, but many concordances only provide coarse mappings. We develop novel concordance tables between industries and technologies making use of linked inventor-employee patent data for Germany. The data comprise 235,933 patents filed between 1999 and 2011 at the European Patent Office. Data on inventors are matched and disambiguated with social security records available at the Institute for Employment Research. Employment data recorded in this database include detailed industry codes describing the industrial activities of the inventors’ establishments. The linked inventor-establishment microdata allow us to identify the precise industry of origin of inventions, combine them with technology classifications from the inventors’ patents and to generate novel concordance tables. We evaluate our approach by comparing the concordance tables with existing work, and we discuss the validity of patent statistics by industries as indicators for innovation.
                                                                                                                                              • Available at SSRN

                                                                                                                                              Mueller-Langer, Frank; Fecher, Benedikt; Harhoff, Dietmar; Wagner, Gert G. (2017). The Economics of Replication, Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper, No. 17-03.

                                                                                                                                              • Replication studies are considered a hallmark of good scientific practice. Yet they are treated among researchers as an ideal to be professed but not practiced. To provide incentives and favorable boundary conditions for replication practice, the main stakeholders need to be aware of what drives replication. Here we investigate how often replication studies are published in empirical economics and what types of journal articles are replicated. We find that from 1974 to 2014 less than 0.1% of publications in the top-50 economics journals were replications. We do not find empirical support that mandatory data disclosure policies or the availability of data or code have a significant effect on the incidence of replication. The mere provision of data repositories may be ineffective, unless accompanied by appropriate incentives. However, we find that higher-impact articles and articles by authors from leading institutions are more likely to be subject of published replication studies whereas the replication probability is lower for articles published in higher-ranked journals.
                                                                                                                                              • Revise-and-Resubmit, Research Policy
                                                                                                                                              • SSRN

                                                                                                                                              Bender, Stefan; Dorner, Matthias; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hinz, Tina; Hoisl, Karin (2016). Social Ties for Labor Market Access - Lessons from the Migration of East German Inventors, CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 11601.

                                                                                                                                              • We study the impact of social ties on the migration of inventors from East to West Germany, using the fall of the Iron Curtain and German reunification as a natural experiment. We identify East German inventors via their patenting track records prior to 1990 and their social security records in the German labor market after reunification. Modeling inventor migration to West German regions after 1990, we find that Western regions with stronger historically determined social ties across the former East-West border attracted more inventors after the fall of the Iron Curtain than regions without such ties. However, mobility decisions made by inventors with outstanding patenting track records (star inventors) were not impacted by social ties. We conclude that social ties support labor market access for migrant inventors and determine regional choices while dependence on these ties is substantially reduced for star performers.
                                                                                                                                              • http://cepr.org/active/publications/discussion_papers/dp.php?dpno=11601

                                                                                                                                              Dorner, Matthias; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hinz, Tina; Hoisl, Karin; Bender, Stefan (2016). Social Ties for Labor Market Access – Lessons from the Migration of East German Inventors, IAB Discussion Paper, 41/2016.

                                                                                                                                              • Diese Studie untersucht den Einfluss von sozialen Beziehungen auf die Arbeitsmarktmigration von in der DDR aktiven Erfindern, die ab 1990 nach Westdeutschland abgewandert sind. Wir verwenden den Fall des Eisernen Vorhangs sowie die anschließende deutsch-deutsche Wiedervereinigung als natürliches Experiment. Unsere Analysepopulation umfasst Erfinder aus den DDR-Patentdaten vor 1990, welche mit Sozialversicherungsdaten im wiedervereinigten Deutschland verknüpft werden konnten. Wir modellieren Migrationsflüsse dieser Erfinder in westdeutsche Regionen und finden, dass regionale Arbeitsmärkte, die stärker ausgeprägte soziale Beziehungen vor der Wende aufwiesen, die bevorzugten Wanderungsziele von Erfindern waren. Zusätzlich zeigen unsere Analysen, dass "Star-Erfinder", die an potenziell wertvolleren DDR-Erfindungen beteiligt waren, in ihren Migrationsentscheidungen nicht von sozialen Beziehungen abhängig waren. Wir schließen daraus, dass soziale Beziehungen Migration positiv unterstützen und auch die Wahl des regionalen Arbeitsmarktes beeinflussen. Allerdings können hierbei personenbezogene Produktivitätsindikatoren die Abhängigkeit und Nutzung von soziale Beziehungen substituieren.
                                                                                                                                              • http://www.iab.de/183/section.aspx/Publikation/k161207304

                                                                                                                                              Harhoff, Dietmar; Stoll, Sebastian (2015). Exploring the Opaqueness of the Patent System - Evidence from a Natural Experiment, Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper, No. 15-02.

                                                                                                                                              • One of the objectives of patent systems is to disclose information which other agents can build on in further inventions and in their decision-making. While some observers take it as given that real-world patent systems serve this objective, we argue in this article that patent systems are highly opaque and likely to be of limited value as a source of information. We use data from a natural experiment to explore this issue. Requests for accelerated examination used to be publicly observable at the European Patent Office (EPO). Starting in December 2001, the EPO started to treat these requests as confidential information. Using data on acceleration requests which were historically known only to the applicant and the EPO, and later provided to us, we test whether the change in the information regime impacted the actions of applicants and their rivals. We develop a theoretical model of acceleration requests and patent opposition to identify the extent to which the patent system is opaque. We confirm empirically that opposition and acceleration rates of high-value patents change significantly in most technological areas once acceleration requests become unobservable. We interpret these results as evidence that the system is highly opaque in many fields.
                                                                                                                                              • Available at SSRN

                                                                                                                                              Frosch, Katharina; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Steinle, Christian; Zwick, Thomas (2015). Humankapitalakkumulation von deutschen Erfindern in Schlüsseltechnologien, Praxisbericht zum DFG-Projekt ”Clean Technology-Innovationen in Deutschland: Humankapitalakkumulation bei heterogenen Wissensinputs“ (GZ: ZW 172/2-1).

                                                                                                                                                Frosch, Katharina; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Steinle, Christian; Zwick, Thomas (2015). Clean Technology Innovations in Germany: Human Capital Accumulation under Heterogenous Knowledge Inputs, Daten- und Methodenbericht zum DFG-Projekt ”Clean Technology-Innovationen in Deutschland: Humankapitalakkumulation bei heterogenen Wissensinputs“ (GZ: ZW 172/2-1).

                                                                                                                                                  Frosch, Katharina; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Steinle, Christian; Zwick, Thomas (2015). Candidate Screening for the Recruitment of Critical Research and Development Workers – A Report and Preliminary Results with Evidence from Experimental Data from German High-Tech Firms, ZEW Discussion Paper, No. 15-002.

                                                                                                                                                  • The report focuses on résumé-based screening strategies for the recruitment of highly qualified research and development (R&D) workers (critical R&D workers) in high-tech firms. We investigate which kinds of professional background, job-related experience, motivations, specific skills, and previous inventive activity make a candidate attractive for firms specializing in clean technology or mechanical elements. The report is based on a combination of survey and experimental data collected from 194 HR decision makers in German high-tech firms and from 89 technology experts in the clean technology and mechanical elements fields. A mixed logit model is used to analyse hiring preferences because this model allows us to deal with repeated choices. We find that HR decision makers prefer candidates with technology-specific patenting experience, an engineering background, analytical thinking skills, and a strong desire to develop path-breaking technologies. Furthermore, no one-size-fits-all candidate exists that is equally preferred in both technology fields. HR decision makers in mechanical element firms prefer specialists to generalists, whereas those in clean technology attach special importance to a candidate’s orientation towards environmental concerns and sustainability.
                                                                                                                                                  • http://ftp.zew.de/pub/zew-docs/dp/dp15002.pdf

                                                                                                                                                  Frosch, Katharina; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Steinle, Christian; Zwick, Thomas (2015). Individual Determinants of Inventor Productivity: Report and Preliminary Results with Evidence from Linked Human Capital and Patent Data, ZEW Discussion Paper, No. 15-001.

                                                                                                                                                  • This report offers new insights into the drivers of inventor productivity at the individual level. It includes well-known drivers, such as inventor age and education, and controls for inventor team size, and firm/applicant information, as well as period and technology field effects derived from patent data. In addition, it adds inventor characteristics that have been largely neglected in existing studies on inventor productivity, such as the breadth of work experience, divergent thinking skills, cognitive problem-solving skills, the use of knowledge sourced from networks within and outside of the inventors’ field of expertise, and personality traits. The empirical model draws on a new dataset that matches information about inventors’ human capital, such as creative skills, personality traits, networks, and career biographies (collected with a self-administered survey) with patenting histories for 1932 German inventors between the years 1978 and 2012 for clean technology, nanotechnology, and mechanical elements. Our results indicate that the additional inventor characteristics double the proportion of total variation of productivity explained by individual characteristics. Furthermore, we find differences in the importance of individual characteristics across industries and along the productivity distribution, between more and less productive inventors.
                                                                                                                                                  • http://ftp.zew.de/pub/zew-docs/dp/dp15001.pdf

                                                                                                                                                  Dorner, Matthias; Bender, Stefan; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Scioch, Patrycja (2014). The MPI-IC-IAB-Inventor data 2002 (MIID 2002): Record-linkage of patent register data with labor market biography data of the IAB, FDZ-Methodenreport, 06/2014, Nuremberg.

                                                                                                                                                  • Der Methodenreport beschreibt die Erstellung eines verknüpften Erfinder-Betriebs-Datensatzes, den MPI-IC-IAB Erfinder Daten 2002 (MIID 2002), unter Verwendung von Methoden des Record Linkage. Der Datensatz verknüpft Patent-Register-Daten zu Patentanmeldungen von in Deutschland wohnhafter Erfindern beim Deutschen Patent- und Markenamt (DPMA) im Jahr 2002 mit Erwerbsbiografiedaten zu sozialversicherungspflichtig Beschäftigten des Instituts für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB). Insgesamt umfasst der Datensatz 46,180 eindeutig identifizierte Beschäftigten-Erfinder Paare und die von diesen Personen im Jahr 2002 angemeldeten 42,435 Patente. Durch das breite Spektrum an Variablen, das eine Vielzahl von Individual- und Betriebsmerkmalen mit Informationen zu Patenten und Erfindern umfasst, bieten die MIID 2002 Daten eine neuartige, auf administrativen Daten beruhende Datenbasis zur Erforschung von Erfindern und deren Patentaktivitäten im Kontext des Arbeitsmarktes
                                                                                                                                                  • http://fdz.iab.de/187/section.aspx/Publikation/k140811311

                                                                                                                                                  Dorner, Matthias; Bender, Stefan; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin (2014). Patterns and Determinants of Inventor Mobility - Evidence from the Employment Biographies of Inventors in Germany (unpublished manuscript).

                                                                                                                                                    Dorner, Matthias; Bender, Stefan; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Scioch, Patrycja (2014). A Technology-Industry Correspondence Based on Linked Inventor-Establishment Data.

                                                                                                                                                      Harhoff, Dietmar; Wagner, Stefan; Pötzl, Matthias; Natterer, Michael; Graevenitz, Georg von (2014). Measuring Patent Thickets.

                                                                                                                                                        Gambardella, Alfonso; Harhoff, Dietmar; Verspagen, Bart (2013). The Economic Value of Patent Portfolios, CEPR Discussion Paper, 9264. London: Centre for Economic Research.

                                                                                                                                                        Harhoff, Dietmar; von Graevenitz, Georg; Wagner, Stefan (2013). Conflict Resolution, Public Goods and Patent Thickets, CEPR Discussion Paper, No. 9468. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research.

                                                                                                                                                        Harhoff, Dietmar; Thoma, Grid (2011). Inventor Location and the Internationalization of R&D, unpublished manuscript, University of Munich.

                                                                                                                                                        • R&D is becoming increasingly globalized, but R&D statistics have not kept up with this development. Firm-level data capture R&D investments irrespective of location, and OECD survey data typically capture only R&D performed within national territorial boundaries. In this paper we rely on information regarding the location of a firm’s inventors and develop a method of quantifying the R&D investments by country of inventive activity. For 3,024 European and US business group and their subsidiaries we have identified all inventors and their locations at the time of invention. In year 2000 these corporations accounted for about 80% of the overall intramural R&D in their countries as reflected in OECD data. Comparing inventor count data to consolidated R&D expenditures we find high correlations both in levels and growth rates. We estimate production function and market value regressions taking the geographical distribution of a firm’s inventive activities into account. Foreign-located inventors contribute significantly to productivity growth and market value.

                                                                                                                                                        Harhoff, Dietmar (2011). The Social Value of Patent Disclosure, unpublished manuscript, University of Munich.

                                                                                                                                                          Harhoff, Dietmar (2011). Deferred Patent Examination – Searching for a Double Dividend, unpublished manuscript, University of Munich.

                                                                                                                                                            Thoma, Grid; Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Guellec, Dominique; Hall, Bronwyn H.; Harhoff, Dietmar (2010). Harmonizing and Combining Large Datasets – An Application to Firm-Level Patent and Accounting Data, NBER Working Paper, 15851. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research. DOI

                                                                                                                                                              Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Webb, Colin (2009). European Patent Citations – How to Count and How to Interpret them, unpublished manuscript, University of Munich.

                                                                                                                                                                Haeussler, Carolin; Harhoff, Dietmar; Mueller, Elisabeth (2008). To Be Financed or Not… - The Role of Patents for Venture Capital Financing, CEPR Discussion Paper, 7115. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research.

                                                                                                                                                                • This paper investigates how patent applications and grants held by new ventures improve their ability to attract venture capital (VC) financing. We argue that investors are faced with considerable uncertainty and therefore rely on patents as signals when trying to assess the prospects of potential portfolio companies. For a sample of VC-seeking German and British biotechnology companies we have identified all patents filed at the European Patent Office (EPO). Applying hazard rate analysis, we find that in the presence of patent applications, VC financing occurs earlier. Our results also show that VCs pay attention to patent quality, financing those ventures faster which later turn out to have high-quality patents. Patent oppositions increase the likelihood of receiving VC, but ultimate grant decisions do not spur VC financing, presumably because they are anticipated. Our empirical results and interviews with VCs suggest that the process of patenting generates signals which help to overcome the liabilities of newness faced by new ventures.
                                                                                                                                                                • http://www.cepr.org/pubs/dps/DP7115

                                                                                                                                                                Haagen, F.; Häußler, C.; Harhoff, Dietmar; Murray, G.; Rudolph, B. (2007). Finding the Path to Success – The Structure and Strategies of British and German Biotechnology Companies. AGBO Report, LMU München.

                                                                                                                                                                  Von Graevenitz, Georg; Wagner, Stefan; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hall, Bronwyn H.; Hoisl, Karin; Giuri, Paola; Gambardella, Alfonso (2007). The Strategic Use of Patents and Its Implications for Enterprise and Competition Policies, Report ENTR/05/82 for DG Enterprise, European Commission.

                                                                                                                                                                  Series

                                                                                                                                                                  Franke, Nikolaus; Harhoff, Dietmar; Henkel, Joachim; Häussler, Carolin (eds.). Innovation und Entrepreneurship. Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler.

                                                                                                                                                                    Videos

                                                                                                                                                                    Presentations and Lectures

                                                                                                                                                                    22.06.2017

                                                                                                                                                                    Patents and Cumulative Innovation - Evidence from Post-Grant Patent

                                                                                                                                                                    10th Annual Searle Center Conference on Innovation Economics
                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Chicago, IL


                                                                                                                                                                    20.06.2017

                                                                                                                                                                    From Science to Innovation - Insights from Linking NPL References to WoS Data

                                                                                                                                                                    Workshop Web of Science (WoS), EPFL Ecole Polytechnique Fédéral de Lausanne
                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Lausanne, Switzerland


                                                                                                                                                                    02.05.2017

                                                                                                                                                                    Ökonomische Analysen der Digitalen Transformation

                                                                                                                                                                    Ringvorlesung, Technical University Munich
                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    20.04.2017

                                                                                                                                                                    Cumulative Innovation Processes

                                                                                                                                                                    Leopoldina-Sektion „Ökonomik und Empirische Sozialforschung“
                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Nuremburg


                                                                                                                                                                    20.04.2017

                                                                                                                                                                    IP Rights and Business Models; Business Development through IP Rights

                                                                                                                                                                    IP re-diagnosis - entry level, European Patent Academy
                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Vienna, Austria


                                                                                                                                                                    08.03.2017

                                                                                                                                                                    Innovationsstandort Deutschland - Rahmenbedingungen für Innovationen in Deutschland

                                                                                                                                                                    10. Deutscher Innovationsgipfel München
                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    21.02.2017

                                                                                                                                                                    Vorstellung des EFI-Gutachtens

                                                                                                                                                                    IHK München
                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    08.02.2017

                                                                                                                                                                    Digitale Transformation und Innovation

                                                                                                                                                                    7. Konferenz für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsdaten

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Berlin


                                                                                                                                                                    02.02.2017

                                                                                                                                                                    Trends und Metriken im Patentsystem

                                                                                                                                                                    13. Kapitalmarkt Kolloquium der Gruppe Kapitalmarkt

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Düsseldorf


                                                                                                                                                                    13.10.2016

                                                                                                                                                                    Daten als Wirtschaftsgut - rechtliche Zuordnung von Daten

                                                                                                                                                                    GRUR Annual Meeting, Keynote Speech

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    10.08.2016

                                                                                                                                                                    Innovation and Taxation

                                                                                                                                                                    Institute for Public Finance, Keynote Lecture

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Lake Tahoe, NE


                                                                                                                                                                    09.08.2016

                                                                                                                                                                    Social Ties vs. Patent Quality Signals - Lessons from the Migration of East German Inventors

                                                                                                                                                                    Academy of Management

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Anaheim, CA


                                                                                                                                                                    06.08.2016

                                                                                                                                                                    Advances in Patent Research: New Data, Measures, and Methods - Comments

                                                                                                                                                                    Academy of Management

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Anaheim, CA


                                                                                                                                                                    03.08.2016

                                                                                                                                                                    Innovation Policies Reconsidered - What Role for ‘Free Innovation’?

                                                                                                                                                                    Open and User Innovation Conference

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Cambridge, MA, US


                                                                                                                                                                    14.07.2016

                                                                                                                                                                    Innovation und Digitalisierung - Erfolgsrezept für den Mittelstand?

                                                                                                                                                                    Verbandstag des Genossenschaftsverbands Bayern
                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Unterschleißheim


                                                                                                                                                                    05.07.2016

                                                                                                                                                                    Internet, Innovation und Wettbewerb

                                                                                                                                                                    ZEW Wirtschaftsforum 2016
                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Mannheim


                                                                                                                                                                    09.06.2016

                                                                                                                                                                    Impulse zu neuen Entwicklungen im Innovationsprozess

                                                                                                                                                                    Keynote Speech at the Fraunhofer Academy “Entrepreneurship & Innovation”

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    27.05.2016

                                                                                                                                                                    European Entrepreneurship

                                                                                                                                                                    INSEAD Entrepreneurship Forum

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Fontainebleau, France


                                                                                                                                                                    20.05.2016

                                                                                                                                                                    Forschungs- und Innovationspolitik in Deutschland

                                                                                                                                                                    Keynote Speech at the 78th Annual Meeting of the VHB with the General Issue “The Role of Entrepreneurs, Corporations and Technology - Opportunities for Business Research” at the Technical University of Munich

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    22.04.2016

                                                                                                                                                                    Etablierte und neue Innovationspfade

                                                                                                                                                                    Session Innovation - Das „Nie-Dagewesene“ als Herausforderung, Akademie für Politische Bildung

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Tutzing


                                                                                                                                                                    21.04.2016

                                                                                                                                                                    The Future of Innovation

                                                                                                                                                                    Year of the Monkey, The Digital Transformation and Innovation Festival München

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    20.04.2016

                                                                                                                                                                    Präsentation des EFI-Gutachtens zu Forschung, Innovation und Technologischer Leistungsfähigkeit Deutschlands

                                                                                                                                                                    IHK Munich and Oberbayern

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    13.04.2016

                                                                                                                                                                    Research and Innovation Policy in Germany

                                                                                                                                                                    4th Sino-German Innovation Conference

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Berlin


                                                                                                                                                                    28.01.2016

                                                                                                                                                                    Verzögerte Patentprüfung - Kosten und Nutzen aus wirtschaftswissenschaftlicher Sicht

                                                                                                                                                                    German Patent and Trademark Office

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    05.01.2016

                                                                                                                                                                    Patent Quality and Examination in Europe

                                                                                                                                                                    Annual Conference of the American Economic Association (AEA), Allied Social Science Assocations (ASSA)

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: San Francisco, CA


                                                                                                                                                                    03.12.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Die Schadensersatzberechnung im Patentstreitverfahren - normative und pragmatische Aspekte

                                                                                                                                                                    5th Annual Meeting KIT Karlsruher Dialog Technik und Recht at the Karlsruher Institute of Technology

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Karlsruhe


                                                                                                                                                                    19.11.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Was die USA und Deutschland voneinander lernen können

                                                                                                                                                                    HHL-Forum 2015: Führung neu denken - Führung und Innovation, HHL Leipzig Graduate School of Management

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Leipzig


                                                                                                                                                                    18.11.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Offenheit als Prinzip für Innovation in der digitalen Welt

                                                                                                                                                                    2nd Open IT Summit - Openness, Innovation and Society, Bündnis 90/Die Grünen

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Berlin


                                                                                                                                                                    04.11.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Analysen der Patentierungsdynamik in wichtigen Technologiebereichen der deutschen Industrie

                                                                                                                                                                    Institute for Public Finance, Keynote Lecture

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    26.10.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Innovationsfähigkeit als Schlüssel zur Zukunft: Chancen für Bayern

                                                                                                                                                                    Wirtschaftsbeirat der Union e.V. (WUB), Young Business Forum

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    25.09.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Übertragungen von Patentrechten in Europa - Eine empirische Analyse

                                                                                                                                                                    GRUR Annual Meeting, Deutsche Vereinigung für gewerblichen Rechtsschutz und Urheberrecht (GRUR)

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Freiburg


                                                                                                                                                                    14.09.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Innovation - Junge vs. etablierte Unternehmen

                                                                                                                                                                    Strategy Conference Supervisory Board Deutsche Post DHL Group

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Buch am Ammersee


                                                                                                                                                                    05.09.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Social Ties or Signaling Effects - Lessons from East German Migration

                                                                                                                                                                    17th CEPR/IZA European Summer Symposium in Labour Economics

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Buch am Ammersee


                                                                                                                                                                    25.07.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Innovation in Deutschland

                                                                                                                                                                    CSU Future Congress Market Economy

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Rosenheim


                                                                                                                                                                    25.06.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Welche Eigenschaften muss ein investitions- und innovationsfreundliches Steuersystem aufweisen?

                                                                                                                                                                    Mannheimer Unternehmenssteuertag 2015: Steuerplanung bei strategischen Investitionsentscheidungen - Chancen und Fallstricke, University of Mannheim and the Center for European Economic Research

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    16.06.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Innovation in Deutschland

                                                                                                                                                                    Keynote Speech Bosch Venture Forum

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Stuttgart


                                                                                                                                                                    12.06.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Semantische Analyse von Patenten - Grundlagen und Anwendungen im IP-Management

                                                                                                                                                                    37th Colloquium of the Technical University of Ilmenau Concering Patent Information and Industrial Property Rights

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Ilmenau


                                                                                                                                                                    22.05.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    How Innovation Drives Change

                                                                                                                                                                    14th Munich Economic Summit

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    20.05.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Forschung und Innovation in Deutschland - jenseits des 3%-Ziels

                                                                                                                                                                    Keynote Speech at the Research Summit 2015, Stifterverband für Deutsche Wissenschaft, Leopoldina Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften und Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation (EFI)

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Berlin


                                                                                                                                                                    23.04.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Conflict Resolution, Public Goods and Patent Thickets

                                                                                                                                                                    20th Internal Conference of the SFB TR 15 (Sonderforschungsbereich Transregio 15)

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Bonn


                                                                                                                                                                    19.02.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Innovationen - Das Erfolgsrezept für Deutschland?

                                                                                                                                                                    41th Augsburger Konjunkturgespräch, IHK Schwaben

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Augsburg


                                                                                                                                                                    05.02.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Exploring the Opaqueness of the Patent System - Evidence from a Natural Experiment

                                                                                                                                                                    Marburg Center for Institutional Economics (MACIE), Faculty of Business Administration and Economics Philipps University of Marburg

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Marburg


                                                                                                                                                                    14.01.2015

                                                                                                                                                                    Digital und vernetzt - welche Innovationen braucht Deutschland?

                                                                                                                                                                    Keynote Speech, Zukunftsstudie MÜNCHNER KREIS Phase VI, Kick-off Event for the Technical Meeting Munich Network, Wege in die digitale Zukunft

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    11.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Patent Similarity

                                                                                                                                                                    IP Statistics for Decision Makers

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Tokyo, Japan


                                                                                                                                                                    11.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Chancen und Risiken der Internationalisierung für die Innovationsfähigkeit Deutschlands und Europas

                                                                                                                                                                    Internationale Wissenschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Standortwettbewerb im 21. Jahrhundert, Konrad Adenauer Foundation

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Cadenabbia, Italy


                                                                                                                                                                    23.10.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Patterns and Determinants of Inventor Mobilitiy in Germany

                                                                                                                                                                    Keynote Speech at the Annual Meeting of the Wissenschaftlichen Kommission Technologie, Innovation und Entrepreneurship (TIE) 2014 des Verbandes der Hochschullehrer für Betriebswirtschaft e.V.

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Garching


                                                                                                                                                                    17.09.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Urheberrecht in der digitalen Welt - Brauchen wir neue Regelungen zum Urheberrecht und zu dessen Durchsetzung?

                                                                                                                                                                    70th German Legal Colloquium 2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Hannover


                                                                                                                                                                    09.07.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Innovationen - Neue Forschungsansätze

                                                                                                                                                                    Inaugural Lecture as Honorary Professor at the University of Munich

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    07.07.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Forschung und Innovation in Deutschland

                                                                                                                                                                    12th IBB-Netzwerktreffen Industrielle Biotechnologie Bayern Netzwerk GmbH - 6th Birthday of the IBB Netzwerk GmbH

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    04.06.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Forschung am Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb

                                                                                                                                                                    Sitzung der Geistes-, Sozial- und Humanwissenschaftlichen Sektion und zum Sektionssymposium Fortschritt der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    30.05.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Patente - Fluch oder Segen für den Innovationsstandort Deutschland?

                                                                                                                                                                    Symposium: How Much Patent Protection Does a Society Need? Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    26.05.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Grundlagen der Innovationsfähigkeit und -politik in Europa

                                                                                                                                                                    Deutsch-Französische Tagung im Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Berlin


                                                                                                                                                                    26.05.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Forschungs- und Innovationspolitik - Anspruch und Wirklichkeit

                                                                                                                                                                    Lecture Series Innovation of the Technical University of Dresden

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Dresden


                                                                                                                                                                    30.04.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Unternehmertum in Deutschland

                                                                                                                                                                    Colloquium: On Behalf of the Future, Fraunhofer Institute Center

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Stuttgart


                                                                                                                                                                    10.04.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Der neue Innovationswettbewerb

                                                                                                                                                                    Keynote Speech at the Presentation of the Houska Award, B&C Private Foundation

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Vienna, Austria


                                                                                                                                                                    27.03.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Zur Bedeutung immaterieller Ressourcen und Innovationen für die Zukunftsfähigkeit von Unternehmen - betriebswirtschaftliche Implikationen des EFI-Gutachtens 2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Schmalenbach Meeting 2014, Immaterial Ressources and Innovations: Challenges for Management, Accounting and Marketing

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Cologne


                                                                                                                                                                    18.03.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Ergebnisse des Jahresgutachtens der Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation 2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Center for European Economic Research

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Mannheim


                                                                                                                                                                    10.03.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Ergebnisse des Jahresgutachtens der Expertenkommission Forschung und Innovation 2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Senate of the German Rectors’ Conference

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Berlin


                                                                                                                                                                    06.03.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    Patterns and Determinants of Inventor Mobility - Evidence from the Employment Biographies of Inventors in Germany

                                                                                                                                                                    Workshop: Beyond Spillovers? Channels and Effects of Knowledge Transfer from Universities, University of Kassel

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Kassel


                                                                                                                                                                    07.-09.02.2014

                                                                                                                                                                    The Important Policy Implications of User Innovation Among Patients

                                                                                                                                                                    Workshop: Patient Innovation, Sharing Solutions, Improving Life, Católica Lisbon School of Business & Economics

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Lisbon, Portugal


                                                                                                                                                                    12.2013

                                                                                                                                                                    Strategischer Einsatz von Patenten in Unternehmen

                                                                                                                                                                    IP Management: Strategies and Solutions for Know-How Protection, Forum MedTech Pharma

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    11.2013

                                                                                                                                                                    Innovation Systems: Organisation and Adaptation to the Knowledge Economy Requirements

                                                                                                                                                                    The Franco-German Round Table on Intangibles, 3rd Conference, Université Paris Sud - European Chair on Intellectual Capital Management/University of Heidelberg

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Paris, France


                                                                                                                                                                    11.2013

                                                                                                                                                                    A Report from Germany

                                                                                                                                                                    13th Annual Round Table for Engineering Entrepreneurship Research, Georgia Institute of Technology

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Atlanta, GA


                                                                                                                                                                    09.2013

                                                                                                                                                                    Standardization and Patent Litigation

                                                                                                                                                                    8th Annual EPIP Conference “The Frontiers of IP”

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Paris, France


                                                                                                                                                                    09.2013

                                                                                                                                                                    Technology Transfer in Germany

                                                                                                                                                                    APE-INV Conference on Academic Research and Intellectual Property

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Paris, France


                                                                                                                                                                    07.2013

                                                                                                                                                                    The Economic Value of Patent Portfolios

                                                                                                                                                                    Conference on Economics of Innovation and Patenting, Center for European Economic Research and the Mannheim Centre for Competition and Innovation (MaCCI)

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Mannheim


                                                                                                                                                                    05.2013

                                                                                                                                                                    Innovation in Germany - Status Quo and Priorities for 2020

                                                                                                                                                                    Atlantik-Brücke/Akademie der Technikwissenschaften Acatech/Deutsch-Kanadische Innovationskonferenz - Innovation and Productivity, Keynote

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    04.2013

                                                                                                                                                                    The Economic Value of Patent Portfolios

                                                                                                                                                                    Charles University Prague, Center for Economics and Graduate Education

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: prague, Czech Republic


                                                                                                                                                                    04.2013

                                                                                                                                                                    Wohlstand durch Forschung und Innovation - Vor welchen Aufgaben steht Deutschland?

                                                                                                                                                                    Results and Perspectives of the Hightech-Strategy, Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) and Forschungsunion

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Berlin


                                                                                                                                                                    04.2013

                                                                                                                                                                    Intellectual Property - From Theory to Practice

                                                                                                                                                                    Charité Entrepreneurship Summit, Stiftung Charité

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Berlin


                                                                                                                                                                    04.2013

                                                                                                                                                                    Bifurkation im deutschen Patentstreitverfahren - eine Nemesis für Patentverletzer und -inhaber?

                                                                                                                                                                    Patentrechtszyklus 2013 - Patentrecht in der Krise?, Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property and Competition Law

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    03.2013

                                                                                                                                                                    Forschung und Innovation in Deutschland - Prioritäten für die nächste Legislaturperiode

                                                                                                                                                                    Institut für Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (IAW)

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Stuttgart


                                                                                                                                                                    01.2013

                                                                                                                                                                    Patent Validity

                                                                                                                                                                    Coreferat to Hans Zischka, TIME Colloquium

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Munich


                                                                                                                                                                    01.2013

                                                                                                                                                                    Patente - Anreiz oder Hemmnis für Innovationen?

                                                                                                                                                                    Schumpeter School Colloquium, University of Wuppertal

                                                                                                                                                                    Location: Wuppertal

                                                                                                                                                                    Projects

                                                                                                                                                                    A New Technology-Industry Correspondence Based on Inventor Social Security Data

                                                                                                                                                                    Academic Patenting in Europe: Database Sharing, Applications and Extensions

                                                                                                                                                                    Experimentallabor

                                                                                                                                                                    Nutzerverhalten im Internet

                                                                                                                                                                    Patent Equivalents and Citations Project

                                                                                                                                                                    Patent Thickets

                                                                                                                                                                    Patterns, Determinants and Outcomes of Inventor Mobility

                                                                                                                                                                    PatVal2

                                                                                                                                                                    Record Linkage of Patent Data with Employment Biography Data of the Institute for Employment Research

                                                                                                                                                                    SFB/TR 15

                                                                                                                                                                    SFB/TRR 190

                                                                                                                                                                    Weiterentwicklung, Erprobung und Validierung des Messinstruments "Innovation & Intrapreneurship Climate Index (I2Cl)" in außeruniversitären Forschungseinrichtungen