Dr. Michèle Finck, LL.M.

Wissenschaftlicher Referent

Immaterialgüter- und Wettbewerbsrecht

michele.finck(at)ip.mpg.de

Arbeitsbereiche:

Grundrechtsschutz, Recht und Innovation, Europarecht, Blockchain digitale Plattformen,  Sharing Economy, Big Data, Datengetriebene Wirtschaft 

Wissenschaftlicher Werdegang

Seit 09/2017:
wissenschaftliche Referentin des Max-Planck-Instituts für Innovation und Wettbewerb

Seit 2018: Fellow am University College London

2014-2018
Dozentin für Europarecht am Keble College der Universität Oxford

2015-2017:
Fellow an der London School of Economics

2015:
Promotion im Europarecht an der Universität Oxford

2013-14
Visiting Researcher an der New York University

2011-12
Postgraduierten Studium am Europäischen Hochschulinstitut

2007-2011
Doppeldiplom im Englischen und Französischem Recht (King's College London & Paris 1)

2006-2007
Jurastudium an der Universität Luxemburg

2006
Abitur am Lycée des Garçons d'Esch-sur-Alzette

Ehrungen und wissenschaftliche Preise

Fondation Nationale de la Recherche, Luxembourg – Promotionsstipendium

Promotionsstipendium der Universität Oxford

Mitgliedschaften

European Law Institute

Digital Law Group 

Mitglied des wissenschaftlichen Ausschusses der Fondation IDEA (Luxemburg) 

Expertin des EU Blockchain Forum and Observatory

Publikationen

Herausgeberschaften

Cambridge Handbook of the Law of the Sharing Economy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2019 (gemeinsam mit Nestor Davidson, John Unfranca).

    Monographien und andere selbständige Publikationen

    Blockchain Regulation and Governance in Europe, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA 2019, 215 S.

      Subnational Authorities and EU Law (Oxford Studies in European Law), Oxford University Press, Oxford 2017, 240 S.

        Beiträge in Sammelwerken, Kommentierungen, Handbüchern und Lexika

        Dezentrale Technologien und Datenschutz, in: Alexander Dix (Hg.), Jahrbuch Informationsfreiheit und Informationsrecht 2019, Lexxion, Berlin 2020, forthcoming.

          Cities, the EU and Fundamental Rights: remembering Omega, in: Helmut Aust, Janne Nijman (Hg.), Elgar Research Handbook on Cities and International Law, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA, USA 2020, forthcoming.

            Automated Decision-Making and Transparency in Administrative Law, in: Peter Cane (Hg.), The Oxford Handbook on Comparative Administrative Law 2020, forthcoming.

              Information Management, in: Peter Cane, Eric Ip, Peter Lindseth (Hg.), Oxford Handbook of Comparative Administrative Law, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2020, forthcoming.

                Smart Contracts und Art. 22 DS-GVO, in: Tom Braegelmann, Markus Kaulartz (Hg.), Rechtshandbuch Smart Contracts, C.H. Beck, München 2019, forthcoming.

                  Blockchains and the Right to be Forgotten, in: Nikita Aggarwal et al. (Hg.), Autonomous Systems and the Law, C.H. Beck; Nomos, München; Baden-Baden 2019, 87 - 90.

                    Foreword, in: Lars Hornuf, Gregor Dorfleitner (Hg.), Fintechs und Datenschutz, Springer, Berlin 2019, forthcoming.

                      Technische Grundlagen von Smart Contracts, in: Martin Fries, Boris Paal (Hg.), Smart Contracts, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2018, 1 - 12.

                        The Sharing Economy and the EU, in: Nestor M. Davidson, Michele Finck, John J. Infranca (Hg.), Cambridge Handbook of the Law of the Sharing Economy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2018, 261 - 273. DOI

                          The Principle of Loyalty in Federations, in: Rüdiger Wolfrum, Frauke Lachenmann, Rainer Grote (Hg.), Max Planck Encyclopaedia of Comparative Constitutional Law (MPECCoL), Oxford Constitutional Law, Oxford 2017.

                          The Impact of EU Law in Luxembourg: Does Size Matter?, in: Caroline Morris, Petra Butler (Hg.), Small States in a Legal World (The World of Small States, 1), Springer, Cham 2017, 65 - 85. DOI

                          • This chapter engages with Luxembourg’s nature as a small state, and the impact its size may have on its relation with the European Union (and in particular its legal order), of which it is a founding Member State. When it comes to size, Luxembourg’s relationship to the European Union is ambiguous. Territorially and demographically speaking, Luxembourg is, with its 2.586 km2 and just over half a million inhabitants, a lightweight, no doubt. Historically and politically speaking, Luxembourg however punches above its geographical weight. It is not only a founding Member State of the EU but has also continuously acted and been perceived as a loyal partner of the European integration project, a stable economy embedded in the internal market and a significant diplomatic player. The European Commission and the institutions that preceded it have had eighteen presidents over time, three of which were Luxembourg nationals: Gaston Thorn was the President of the European Commission from 1981–1985, Jacques Santer from 1995–1999 and Jean-Claude Juncker is the Commission’s current head. Luxembourg, and especially its capital, Luxembourg City, host divisions of the European Parliament and the European Commission as well as the Court of Justice of the European Union (‘CJEU’ or ‘the Court’). In April, June and October of each year, the meetings of the Council are held in Luxembourg.

                          Aufsätze

                          Introduction to the Special Issue: 20 Challenges for the EU in 2020, German Law Journal - open access to comparative, european and international law 2020, forthcoming (gemeinsam mit Florian de Witte).

                            Afterword on 'Spatial Statism', International Journal of Constitutional Law 18 (2020), forthcoming.

                              Smart Contracts as Automated Decision-Making under Article 22 GDPR, International Data Privacy Law 9 (2019), 1 - 17.

                                Copyright Law on Blockchains: Between New Forms of Rights Administration and Digital Rights Management 2.0, IIC 50, 1 (2019), 77 - 108 (gemeinsam mit Valentina Moscon). DOI

                                • This article examines the potential and limitations of blockchain technology and blockchain-based smart contracts in relation to copyright. Copyright has long been enforced through technological means, specifically Digital Rights Management. With the emergence of blockchains, many are now predicting a new era regarding the administration and enforcement of copyright through computer code. The article introduces the technology and related potential and limitations while stressing its capacity to act as a form of normative ordering that can express public or private objectives.

                                Distinguishing internet platforms from transport services: Elite Taxi v. Uber Spain, Common Market Law Review 55, 5 (2018), 1619 - 1640.

                                  Blockchains: Regulating the Unknown, German Law Journal 19, 4 (2018), 665 - 691.

                                  • This Article, which takes into account developments up until summer 2017, evaluates the early days of regulatory engagement with blockchain technology. My analysis unfolds in three parts. First, I provide a cursory overview of the technology itself to highlight considerable uncertainties concerning its future. Regulators asked to engage with distributed ledgers are thus compelled to regulate the unknown. Second, I will introduce a typology of regulatory strategies adopted to date and highlight their respective advantages and shortcomings. Third, I will outline a number of guiding principles regulators should follow in respect of blockchain technology. I will make the argument that despite the technology's uncertain future, early regulatory engagement is warranted as a young technology is a malleable technology. As technology develops, law has to adapt. As a consequence, I put forward a number of regulatory techniques, including a process of polycentric co-regulation that relies on the regulatory potential of (blockchain) software and the adoption of a so-called "2 8th regime" at the EU level which may help navigate the uncertainties of blockchain development and regulation.
                                  • Also published at SSRN as Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper No. 17-13 under the title: Blockchain Regulation

                                  Fragmentation as an agent of integration: Subnational authorities in EU law, International Journal of Constitutional Law 15, 4 (2018), 1119 - 1134. DOI

                                  • This article draws on the theory of “federalism as the new nationalism” to illustrate that regulatory fragmentation is not necessarily synonymous with disintegration. Regulatory fragmentation can rather be conceptualized as a tool assisting European integration. Looking at the status of subnational authorities (SNAs) in EU law, the article identifies decisions of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) in free movement law that illustrate that SNAs can be conceived as valuable insiders, rather than threatening outsiders, of European law. This account, which indicates that SNAs’ contribution to European legal integration is in many ways analogous to that of the Member States, stands in contrast with the European Treaties that recognize only two levels of public authority as SNAs are seen as a predominantly domestic phenomenon of little relevance for the supranational project. My analysis underscores that SNAs and their norms do not exist in a sphere separate from that of EU law. It highlights diverse interactions between the subnational and the supranational and suggests that the influence of levels of public authority can best be captured by a paradigm of interconnection rather than separation. Indeed, contrary to commonplace assumptions, it is not actors’ formal status, anchored in notions such as independence, sovereignty, and autonomous competences but the manifold functional interactions between them that shape the polycentric Union. Through this functional lens we confirm what federalism scholars have observed in the USA, namely, that “decentralization can serve rather than undermine the project of integration.”

                                  Digital co-regulation: designing a supranational legal framework for the platform economy, European Law Review 43, 1 (2018), 47 - 68.

                                    The Role of Human Dignity in Gay Rights Adjudication, International Journal of Constitutional Law 14, 1 (2016), 26 - 53. DOI

                                      Sharing and the City, Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 49, 5 (2016), 1299 - 1369 (gemeinsam mit Sofia Ranchordas).

                                      • The sharing of public infrastructure, the exchange of small services, and the traditional "cup of sugar borrowed from the neighbor" are practices intrinsic to most urban agglomerations. In the digital age, these sharing initiatives are facilitated by online platforms such as Feastly, Peerby, and HomeExchange. These platforms allow city residents to share the idle capacity of some of their assets (e.g., clothing, tools, or a spare bedroom) with other residents living in close proximity to them, or with tourists looking for accommodation. While these practices can be justified by efficiency and sustainability concerns, some of them appear to be in conflict with longstanding regulations on localtransportation, food safety, zoning, taxation, and short-term accommodation. This Article explores urban peer-to-peer sharing practices from a comparative perspective and discusses how a number of large cities in Europe, the United States, and Asia are currently addressing the regulatory challenges inherent to sharing platforms. We argue that cities should rethink their regulations in light of this new form of urban sharing. The legal literature has thus far conveyed an incomplete image of the sharing economy by focusing on controversial platforms such as Uber and their ongoing lawsuits. In this Article, we reestablish the historical, economic, and legal meaning of genuine "urban sharing." First, this Article distinguishes between genuinely collaborative initiatives that promote the sharing of underutilized assets (e.g., spare guestrooms) and non-collaborative platforms that are not driven by sustainable consumption (e.g., Uber). Second, it provides an overview of the economic and geographic sharing potential of cities and discusses how outdated regulations might restrict it. Third, drawing on the experience of the so-called sharing cities (e.g., Seoul), it suggests a new legal framework for the regulation of genuine sharing practices. In this context, we argue that cities should, in some cases, experiment with the regulation of sustainable sharing initiatives in order to gather more information as to their benefits or risks, and, in other cases, engage in collaborative decision-making by negotiating the content of new legal provisions and policies with digital platforms.

                                      Towards an ever closer union between residents and citizens? On the possible extension of voting rights to foreign residents in Luxembourg, European Constitutional Law Review 11, 1 (2015), 78 - 98.

                                        Surrogacy Leave as a Matter of EU Law: CD and Z - Judgments of the Court of Justice (Grand Chamber) in Case C-167/12, C.D. v. S.T., EU:C:2014:169 and Case C-363/12, Z. v. A Government Department and The Board of management of a community school, EU:C:2014:159., Common Market Law Review 52 (2015), 281 - 298 (gemeinsam mit Betül Kas).

                                          Challenging the Subnational Dimension of the Principle of Subsidiarity, European Journal of Legal Studies 8, 1 (2015), 5 - 17.

                                          • (upon invitation of the editorial board)
                                          • This article, which forms part of the New Voices' series and is hence drafted as an essay rather than a proper academic article, examines the principle of subsidiarity in its application to local and regional authorities as they exist within the various Member States. While subnational authorities ('SNAs) have been studied extensively within the respective domestic contexts, their relation with other levels ofpublic authority, such as the European Union, is less well-defined. Subsidiarity is often cast as the principle capable of recognising the existence ofsubnational autonomies by the EU, and guiding their interaction with the latter. This is so in particular after Article 5(3) TEU has been amended on the occasion of the Lisbon Treaty revision to include an express reference to local and regional authorities. This short essay challenges this perception of subsidiarity, putting forward that the core legal provisions that deal with subsidiarity in EU law do not allocate any meaningful role for SNAs. This is so, it is argued, because subsidiarity remains anchored in an understanding of the European Union and its legal order as composed of and shaped by the EU and the Member States to the exclusion of any other actor.

                                          The Role of Localism in Constitutional Change: A Case Study, The Journal of Law & Politics 30, 1 (2014), 53 - 95.

                                          • This Article investigates the role local governments have played in bringing about constitutional change in the area of gay rights. Localities are conventionally framed either as administrative agents that implement state and federal norms or as creators of local regulation, the effect of which is strictly limited to the local territory. Conventional images of constitutional law accordingly assume that the competences of local governments are too limited to influence constitutional change. I take issue with this assumption and illustrate that localities can be generators of important legal norms that transcend the local territory. By acting through legal, rather than purely political means, the performative nature of local regulation influences state and federal law in a constitutional order characterized by polycentricity and porosity. As such, municipal policies have been one of many driving forces behind the significant changes in gay rights at the state and federal levels over the past years.

                                          Above and Below the Surface: The Status of Sub-National Authorities in EU Climate Change Regulation, Journal of Environmental Law 26, 3 (2014), 443 - 472. DOI

                                          • European Union (EU) legal studies generally picture the Member States’ local and regional authorities as implementers of national and supranational norms rather than independent regulators. Yet, sub-national authorities (SNAs) have become active regulators in the context of climate change mitigation and adaptation, a role not foreseen by EU primary law, which this article understands to constitute the surface of EU law. This article examines regulatory activity of SNAs from the perspective of EU law. It illustrates that sub-national, national, supranational and international actors are engaged in a process of mutual learning and experimentation and that, below its surface, EU law recognises that SNAs are not mere implementers of norms but also independent regulators.

                                          Forschungspapiere

                                          Smart Contracts as a Form of Solely Automated Processing Under the GDPR (Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper, No. 19-01), 2019, 29 S. DOI

                                          • This article examines the interaction between smart contracts and Article 22 GDPR. There is currently much debate regarding the potential of smart contracts. In spite of their name, this form of computer code is however neither necessarily smart nor a contract. I argue that they are, however, a form of solely automated data processing under Article 22(1) GDPR and subsequently examine the interaction between smart contracts and the European data protection framework to highlight uncertainties regarding the interpretation of the legal regime applying to solely automated forms of data processing under the GDPR.

                                          Blockchains and Data Protection in the European Union (Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper, No. 18-01), 2017, 31 S.

                                          • This paper examines data protection on blockchains and other forms of distributed ledger technology (‘DLT’). Transactional data stored on a blockchain, whether in plain text, encrypted form or after having undergone a hashing process, constitutes personal data for the purposes of the GDPR. Public keys equally qualify as personal data as a matter of EU data protection law. We examine the consequences flowing from that state of affairs and suggest that in interpreting the GDPR with respect to blockchains, fundamental rights protection and the promotion of innovation, two normative objectives of the European legal order, must be reconciled. This is even more so given that, where designed appropriately, distributed ledgers have the potential to further the GDPR’s objective of data sovereignty.
                                          • Available at SSRN

                                          Vorträge

                                          Auswahl an Vorträgen in den letzten Jahren:

                                          06/2019
                                          Intellectual Forum
                                          Ort: Universität Cambridge, UK


                                          06/2019
                                          ‘Technology and Human Rights’
                                          Presentation delivered to the PhD Program in Human Rights
                                          Ort: Universität Palermo, Italien


                                          06/2019
                                          Workshop on Decentralised Systems
                                          Ort: Bocconi Universität Mailand, Italien


                                          06/2019
                                          Research Seminar
                                          Ort: Juristische Fakultät, Universität Warschau, Polen


                                          06/2019
                                          ‘Courts and Internet Governance’ Workshop
                                          Ort: Universität Maastricht, Niederlande


                                          05/2019
                                          Inaugural conference of the IACL research group on the Algorithmic State, Society and Market
                                          Ort: European University Institute, Florenz, Italien


                                          05/2019
                                          Co-organiser of a panel on ‘The Changing Notion of the Data Controller in EU Data Protection Law’
                                          2019 TILTing conference
                                          Ort: Universität Tilburg, Niederlande


                                          04/2019
                                          High-level seminar on the data economy
                                          co-organized by the Jacques Delors Institute and the Sitra Innovation Fund
                                          Ort: Helsinki, Finnland


                                          04/2019
                                          Data Protection in Smart Grids
                                          Berlin Energy Transition Dialogue
                                          Ort: Auswärtiges Amt, Berlin, Deutschland


                                          03/2019
                                          Blockchain Roundtable
                                          Ort: Bundestag, Berlin, Deutschland


                                          03/2019
                                          Expert evidence on online platforms
                                          Ort: Financial Stability Board Financial Innovation Network (remote)


                                          03/2019
                                          Academy of European Law
                                          Annual Conference on Data Protection Law 2019
                                          Ort: Brüssel, Belgien


                                          03/2019
                                          Balancing Data Protection and Retention Obligations in Financial Law
                                          Ort: European Law Institute, Universität Zürich, Schweiz


                                          03/2019
                                          Academy of European Law
                                          Course on Smart Contracts
                                          Ort: Trier, Deutschland


                                          03/2019
                                          POLITICO Artificial Intelligence Summit
                                          Ort: Brüssel, Belgien


                                          03/2019
                                          Lunchtime Seminar
                                          Ort: Universität Durham, UK


                                          02/2019
                                          Seminar on Data Protection
                                          Ort: Universität Luxembourg and the Luxembourg Data Protection Authority, Luxembourg


                                          02/2019
                                          Workshop on Data Protection in Humanitarian Action
                                          Ort: International Committee of the Red Cross, Genf, Schweiz


                                          01/2019
                                          Controllers Everywhere, Data Controllers Nowhere? Computers, Privacy and Data Protection (‘CPDP’)
                                          Ort: Brüssel, Belgien


                                          12/2018
                                          Introduction to the High-Level Roundtable on Blockchain with Commissioner Gabriel
                                          Ort: Brüssel, Belgien


                                          12/2018
                                          Regulatory Principles for Decentralized Networks
                                          Ort: European Commission & EU Blockchain Observatory and Forum, Paris, Frankreich


                                          11/2018
                                          Blockchain, Public Trust, Law and Governance
                                          Ort: Universität Groningen, Niederlande


                                          11/2018
                                          Ringvorlesung „Datenschutz“
                                          Ort: Universität Münster, Deutschland


                                          10/2018
                                          Regulating Technology
                                          Ort: Université Paris I Sorbonne, Paris, Frankreich


                                          10/2018
                                          Legislative Drafting and New Technologies
                                          Ort: Italienisches Parlament, Rom, Italien


                                          08/2018
                                          The Data Economy and EU Law
                                          Ort: Seoul National University, Südkorea


                                          06/2018
                                          Grundlagen und Technologie von Smart Contracts
                                          Ort: Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Deutschland


                                          06/2018
                                          Blockchains and EU Law
                                          Ort: European Law Institute Meeting, Ferrara, Italien


                                          06/2018
                                          Distributed Ledger Technology and Data Protection
                                          Ort: Europäische Kommission


                                          04/2018
                                          The Regulation of ICOs: Between Member State and EU Competence
                                          Ort: Bundesministerium der Finanzen, Berlin, Deutschland


                                          04/2018
                                          The Right to be Forgotten
                                          Ort: Universität Oxford, UK


                                          03/2018
                                          Regulating Decentralized Blockchain Ecosystems
                                          Ort: Wharton Business School, Philadelphia, USA


                                          03/2018
                                          Regulating Decentralized Blockchain Ecosystems
                                          Ort: London School of Economics, UK


                                          02/2018
                                          Can Blockchains be Regulated?
                                          Ort: Oxford Internet Institute, UK


                                          02/2018
                                          Can Blockchains be Regulated?
                                          Ort: Durham University, UK


                                          09/2017
                                          Regulating the Sharing Economy
                                          Ort: Luxembourg


                                          07/2017
                                          ICON-S Konferenz
                                          Ort: Kopenhagen, Dänemark


                                          04/2017
                                          International Conference on the Regulation of the Sharing Economy
                                          Ort: Boston, USA


                                          03/2017
                                          Reg-Gov Workshop
                                          Ort: Tilburg University, Niederlande


                                          02/2017
                                          Ent-Staatlichung der Kommune in der Globalisierung
                                          Ort: Universität Konstanz, Deutschland


                                          02/2017
                                          BEUcitizen Workshop
                                          Ort: Universität Oxford, UK


                                          07/2016
                                          ECPR Standing Group on Regulatory Governance
                                          Ort: Universität Tilburg, Niederlande


                                          06/2016
                                          Conference of the International Society of Public Law
                                          Ort: Humboldt Universität Berlin, Deutschland


                                          02/2016
                                          Research Seminar in EU Law
                                          Ort: Juristische Fakultät, Universität Cambridge, UK


                                          07/2015
                                          Annual Conference of the International Society of Public Law
                                          Ort: NYU, New York, USA


                                          07/2015
                                          Fordham Urban Law Conference
                                          Ort: Paris, Frankreich


                                          09/2015
                                          Centre for Small States
                                          Ort: Queen Mary Universität London, UK


                                          10/2015
                                          Symposium ‘Federalism(s) and Fundamental Rights – Europe and the United States Compared’
                                          Ort: Yale Law School, New Haven, USA


                                          11/2015
                                          Research Seminar
                                          Ort: Juristische Fakultät, London School of Economics, UK


                                          06/2014
                                          EU law, Polycentricity, and Porosity: In Search for a Tool Able to Guide the Interaction of Multiple Levels of Public Authority
                                          International Society of Public Law Inaugural Conference (EUI)
                                          Ort: Florenz, Italien


                                          06/2014
                                          The Role of Human Dignity in Gay Rights Adjudication and Legislation. A Comparative Perspective
                                          Ort: International Congress of Constitutional Law, Oslo, Norwegen


                                          05/2014
                                          Young Scholars Conference
                                          Ort: Universität Toronto, Kanada

                                          Lehrveranstaltungen

                                          Seit 2014: Dozentin für Europarecht (Keble College, Universität Oxford) 

                                          Gastdozentin im Bereich Recht und Technologie an mehreren europäischen Universitäten