Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Wettbewerb, Munich, Room 313
Multiple institutional affiliations occur when an academic belongs to more than one organisation. We document an increase in multiple institutional affiliations listed by authors on scientific publications based on an analysis of more than 2.5 million publications from OECD countries (plus selected countries such as China) during the 1996-2018 period. Furthermore, we find that the increase in the share of articles with multiple affiliations is more pronounced in countries that have implemented some form of Excellence Initiative (ExIn). Publication-author-level difference-in-differences analyses show that the probability of authors listing multiple affiliations after the implementation is between 1.3 (Japan) and 10 (France) percent higher than in countries without Excellence Initiatives. Evidence on roles and motivations behind these arrangements is mainly anecdotal. We argue that multiple affiliations may present a new model for competitive edge in the highly contested research market. Reporting results from an international survey on academics in three major science nations (the UK, Germany and Japan), we find that multiple affiliations are widespread across disciplines and are used to increase access to resources, networks or know-how. Junior academics also use them to increase job prospects and income, indicative of the precarious employment conditions they may find themselves in. Additional affiliations do not seem to be a source of conflict for mid-career and senior researchers, but junior researchers may face time and other work-related conflicts due to the additional commitment. The majority of additional affiliations build on personal contacts, but institutions also proactively shape the organisational links of their staff.
Contact person: Michael Rose, Ph.D.