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Discussion Papers
Innovation and Entrepreneurship Research

Identifying and Measuring Developments in Artificial Intelligence: Making the Impossible Possible

Baruffaldi, Stefano Horst; van Beuzekom, Brigitte; Dernis, Hélène; Harhoff, Dietmar; Rao, Nandan; Rosenfeld, David; Squicciarini, Mariagrazia (2020). Identifying and Measuring Developments in Artificial Intelligence: Making the Impossible Possible, OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers No. 2020/05.

This paper identifies and measures developments in science, algorithms and technologies related to artificial intelligence (AI). Using information from scientific publications, open source software (OSS) and patents, it finds a marked increase in AI-related developments over recent years. Since 2015, AI-related publications have increased by 23% per year; from 2014 to 2018, AI-related OSS contributions grew at a rate three times greater than other OSS contributions; and AI-related inventions comprised, on average, more than 2.3% of IP5 patent families in 2017. China’s growing role in the AI space also emerges. The analysis relies on a three-pronged approach based on established bibliometric and patent-based methods, and machine learning (ML) implemented on purposely collected OSS data.

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