Juan Ignacio Correa

Affiliated Research Fellow

Intellectual Property and Competition Law


Area of Interest

Patent Law of pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, plant variety protection, genetic resources and traditional knowledge, innovation and technology transfer, international negotiations on intellectual property, developing countries

Academic Resumé

Since 2020
Doctoral Student, University of Buenos Aires

Since 2019
Affiliated Research Fellow, Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb

2017 – 2018
Cum Laude Master of Law (LL.M) in Intellectual Property, WIPO, ILO, TURIN,

Since 2016
Junior Researcher, Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of Industrial and Economic Law at the Faculty of Law of the University of Buenos Aires (CEIDIE).

Since 2015
Editor in the Journal “Temas de Derecho Industrial y Propiedad Intelectual”, editorial Ciudad Argentina, Argentina

2014 – 2015
Master of Intellectual Property, FLACSO Argentina 

Undergraduate in Law, University of Buenos Aires


Contributions to Collected Editions, Commentaries, Handbooks and Encyclopaedias

La Propiedad Intelectual en Latinoamérica y su Rol en el Desarrollo Económico y Social, in: Estudos de Propriedade Intelectual em Homenagem ao Prof. Dr. Denis Borges Barbosa, IODA - Instituto Observatório do Direito Autoral, Curitiba 2021, 25 - 64 (together with Reto M. Hilty et al.).

  • O texto trata do estabelecimento e evolução dos direitos da propriedade in-telectual na América Latina. Perpassa os contextos nos quais esses direitos foram incorporados ao arcabouço legal doméstico. Ainda que as economias latino-americanas sejam mais ou menos frágeis do ponto de vista da pro-priedade intelectual, as conclusões apontam que há diversos desafios a se-rem enfrentados, mas que os países da região têm potencial para superá-los e avançar na proteção e na utilização dos seus ativos intelectuais.
  • This article deals with the establishment and evolution of intellectual property rights in Latin America. It goes through the contexts in which these rights have been in-corporated into the domestic legal framework. Although Latin American economies are more or less fragile from the point of view of intellectual property, the conclusions indicate that there are several challenges to be faced, but that the countries of the region have the potential to overcome them and advance in the protection and use of their intellectual assets.
  • https://codaip.gedai.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/1_Estudos-de-Propriedade-Intelectual-em-homenagem-ao-Prof_Dr_Denis-Borges-Barbosa.pdf

Propiedad Intelectual en el Sector de las Semillas Bajo la Óptica de las Normas de Competencia en Latinoamérica, in: Ernesto Rengifo García, Francisco Beneke (eds.), Los Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual y Libre Competencia, Siglo del Hombre Editores, Bogotá 2021, 467 - 517.

    Impacto del Tratado de Cooperación de Patentes en Latinoamérica en Propiedad Intelectual, Sociedad y Desarrollo - Reflexiones desde Latinoamérica, in: María Sol Terlizzi, Marcos Wachowicz (eds.), Propiedad Intelectual, Sociedad y Desarrollo: Reflexiones desde Latinoamérica, GEDAI-UFPR, Curitiba 2020, 143 - 167.

    20 años de la OMC: la instrumentación del acuerdo sobre los aspectos de los derechos de propiedad intelectual relacionados con el comercio de América Latina, in: Valentina Delich, Dorotea López, Felipe Muñoz (eds.), 20 años de la OMC: una perspectiva desde Latinoamerica, FLASCO. Sede Académica Argentina, Programa de Catedras OMC, Universidad de de Chile, Buenos Aires 2016, 239 - 305 (together with Carlos M. Correa).

      Parallel Imports and the Principle of Exhaustion of Rights in Latin America, in: Irene Calboli, Edward Lee (eds.), Research Handbook on Intellectual Property Exhaustion and Parallel Imports (Research Handbooks in Intellectual Property Series), Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK; Northampton, MA 2016, 198 - 225 (together with Carlos M. Correa).

        Journal Articles

        Impact of the Patent Cooperation Treaty in Latin America, GRUR Int 69, 8 (2020), 803 - 822 (together with Carlos M. Correa). DOI

        • This study shows that the main beneficiaries of the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) in three Latin American countries, which adhered to it as a result of the obligations provided for in free trade agreements, have been non-residents rather than local companies and individual inventors. This rebuts the frequently made argument that acceding to the PCT would generate incentives for local innovation and benefit local inventors by boosting their capacity to protect their developments in third countries. In the three countries considered in this study, the number of patents granted increased after accession to the treaty. This points to the risk of an erosion of the countries’ flexibilities in designing and implementing patent policies, as allowed by the TRIPS Agreement, with respect to the standards applied to assess eligibility for patent protection.

        The Status of Patenting Plants in the Global South, The Journal of World Intellectual Property 23, 1-2 (2020), 121 - 146 (together with Carlos M. Correa, Bram De Jonge). DOI

        • Over the last few decades, the number of patents on plants and plant parts has greatly increased in various parts of the world. Most research, however, has focused exclusively on developed countries—the United States and European Union states in particular—while little is known about the extent to which plants are being patented in other parts of the world. This article aims to fill this information gap by providing an overview of the status of patenting plants in the developing countries and emerging economies of the Global South. The research is based on the analysis of legal provisions, patentability guidelines, court decisions (where they exist) and a sample of patents granted in the countries selected for this study. The findings indicate that despite the flexibilities of the World Trade Organization Trade‐Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights Agreement regarding the nonpatentability of plants, 60% of the 126 countries in the Global South for which data were available to allow for the patenting of plants or parts thereof, and many such patents have been identified. This situation warrants further reflection and, potentially, review of existing patent laws as developing countries search for ways of responding optimally to the needs of feeding a growing population while adapting to the challenges of climate change.

        Case notes

        Legal Standing to Sue for Revocation of a Trade Mark for Lack of Use - Case Note to Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo), Decision of 8 May 2019 – 4074/2016, GRUR Int 69, 3 (2020), 308 - 315. DOI

          Research Papers

          Implementation of Patent Flexibilities in Asia (forthcoming), Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper 2022 (together with Matthias Lamping).

            Implementation of Patent Flexibilities in Latin American (forthcoming), Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper 2022 (together with Matthias Lamping).

              Implementación de las Flexibilidades del Sistema de Patentes en Países Seleccionados de Latinoamérica (forthcoming), Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper 2022,.2022 (together with Matthias Lamping).

                Intellectual Property in the EU–MERCOSUR FTA: A Brief Review of the Negotiating Outcomes of a Long-Awaited Agreement (Research Paper / South Centre, 128), South Centre, Geneva 2021, 44 pp. (together with Roxana Carmen Blasetti).

                • This paper provides a first glance at the Intellectual Property Chapter of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) and the European Union (EU). It is not intended to provide an exhaustive analysis of the commitments involved but rather to briefly review the scope of intellectual property in the bi-regional negotiations, which took more than 20 years and ended in June 2019 with an “agreement in principle.” It also aims to put the Chapter into context with the whole commitments covered by the FTA and, finally, to highlight its most relevant aspects.
                • Este documento ofrece un primer vistazo al capítulo sobre propiedad intelectual del Tratado de Libre Comercio (TLC) entre el Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR) y la Unión Europea (UE). No se pretende hacer un análisis exhaustivo de los compromisos implicados, sino más bienrevisar brevemente el alcance de la propiedad intelectual en las negociaciones birregionales, que duraron más de 20 años y terminaron en junio de 2019 con un "acuerdo de principio". También tiene por objeto situar el capítulo en el contexto de todos los compromisos cubiertos por el TLC y, por último, poner de relieve sus aspectos más relevantes.
                • Ce document donne un premier aperçu du chapitre sur la propriété intellectuelle de l'accord de libre-échange (ALE) entre le Marché commun du Sud (MERCOSUR) et l'Union européenne (UE). Il n'a pas pour but de fournir une analyse exhaustive des engagements impliqués, mais plutôt de revoir brièvement la portée de la propriété intellectuelle dans les négociations bi-régionales, qui ont duré plus de 20 ans et qui se sont terminées en juin 2019 par un "accord de principe". Il vise également à mettre ce chapitre en contexte avec l'ensemble des engagements couverts par l'ALE et, enfin, à mettre en évidence ses aspects les plus pertinents.
                • https://www.southcentre.int/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/RP-128.pdf

                Breeder's Exemption in Patent Law: Towards a TRIPS Compliant Exemption (WIPO Academy, University of Turin and ITC-ILO - Master of Laws in IP - Research Papers Collection, 2017-2018), 2019, 31 pp.

                • This paper will discuss the incorporation of a breeder’s exemption into patent law. The main question to be addressed is whether such an exemption, as found in plant variety protection regimes, would create an appropriate balance between the patent right holder’s interest and the public interest and whether it would be compatible with the TRIPS disciplines. Section II examines how the breeder’s exemption is provided under the UPOV Convention and in some jurisdictions (with the examples of US, Europe, Ecuador), while section III analyses the compatibility of two different versions of that exemption with the TRIPS Agreement.
                • Available at SSRN

                The Status of Patenting Plants in the Global South, Position Statement and Research Report, Oxfam Novib, The Hague 2018, 62 pp. (together with Carlos M. Correa).

                • Over the last few decades, the number of patents on plants and plant parts has greatly increased in various parts of the world. This has triggered social debate about possible negative consequences for the breeding sector, farmers and society. Despite the urgency of these questions, most research and literature has focused exclusively on developed countries – the USA and European Union, in particular – while little is known about the extent to which plants are being patented in other parts of the world. This research report, conducted and written by Prof. Carlos M. Correa, aims to fill this information gap by providing an overview of the status of patenting plants in the developing countries and emerging economies of the Global South.

                  With this research, Oxfam aims to contribute to awareness and understanding of the current status of patenting of plants in developing countries and emerging economies, to inform societal discussion and decision-making. The findings of this research – plus inputs from stakeholders during a workshop on global trends in patenting of seeds that took place in The Hague in October 2018 – informed the Oxfam Position Statement on the Patenting of Plants, that precedes the Report.
                • https://oxfam.box.com/s/f5l0b0wtcko2ifeksm9xuaso4dhbpg9r


                Revisiting the Framework for Compulsory Licensing of Patents in the European Union, 2023, 27 pp. (together with Matthias Lamping et al.).

                • Within the scope of its initiative on “Compulsory Licensing in the EU”, the European Commission launched a call for evidence on 1 April 2022 and a public consultation on 7 July 2022 with the aim of gathering views from stakeholders. The objective of this initiative is to explore the possibility of revising the framework for compulsory licensing in the EU to make it more “adequately prepared and coordinated to tackle future crises”. The authors of this position paper welcome the Commission’s attempt to reinvigorate the public discourse on this important subject. This paper addresses selected aspects by way of a preliminary, non-exhaustive note on: the proposed reform’s scope and the grounds for a compulsory licence; the requirements of prior negotiation and licensing failure; government use; procedural matters; compulsory licences for patent applications and products; the relation with other regulations and sui generis regimes (i.e. trade secret protection, regulatory data protection, and supplementary protection certificates); the concept of adequate remuneration; compulsory licences for European patents with unitary effect; and the exhaustion of products placed on the market under a compulsory licence.
                • Opinion published as Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper No. 23-07

                Position Statement of 5 July 2022 on the Decision of the WTO Ministerial Conference on the TRIPS Agreement adopted on 17 June 2022, 2022, 8 pp. (together with Reto M. Hilty et al.).

                • On 17 June 2022, after nearly one and a half years of intense debate concerning the proposal to waive IP protection in view of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization adopted a decision on the TRIPS Agreement. It has not waived any intellectual property rights as such but instead mainly clarified the application of the existing TRIPS flexibilities, in particular, regarding compulsory licensing of patents. The Position Statement shows that the Ministerial Decision makes no substantive difference in the existing international legal framework, except for lifting the limitation on the exportation of vaccines manufactured in accordance with the Decision. To the extent that the Decision can make the application of TRIPS flexibilities more expedient, it is to be welcomed. At the same time, it is argued that such facilitating effect should not be limited to, or justified by, the exceptional circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic. More critically, it should not be restricted to COVID-19 vaccines, of which there is currently no shortage – rather, the same level of TRIPS flexibilities should apply to all medicinal products needed to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic.
                • 2022-07-05__2._Position_Statement_Covid_IP_Waiver.pdf
                • Also published as: Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper No. 22-14



                Propiedad Intelectual y Acceso a los medicamentos

                Maestría en Farmacopolíticas, Universidad Isalud
                Location: Buenos Aires, Argentina

                12/09 – 12/10/2019

                Global Forum on Intellectual Property, Access to Medicines and Innovation

                Organized by South Centre and the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition
                Location: Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition, Munich

                11/04 – 11/05/2019

                Nuevos desafíos en la innovación de plantas

                Seminar internacional sobre agrobiotecnología, plantas y propiedad intelectual, ponencia
                CEIDIE - Universidad de los Andes
                Location: Buenos Aires, Argentina


                Agrobiotecnología, Propiedad Intelectual y Políticas Públicas

                Regional seminar, organized by the Fundación German Abdala and the Fundación Friedrich-Ebert


                Hacia la negociación de un nuevo instrumento para laconservación y el uso sostenible de la biodiversidad marina en áreas fuera de las jurisdicciones nacionales

                Workshop, presentation regarding Marine genetic resources and benefit sharing
                Location: Pew Charitable Trusts and Ministry of Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible, Buenos Aires, Argentina


                Intellectual Property and its relation to science and open innovation

                Location: Metropolitan Design Center, Buenos Aires, Argentina

                09/07 –09/11/2015

                Access to Medicines and Intellectual Property

                Organized by UNDP, South Centre, CEIDIE UBA, and the Ministry of Health of Argentina (Argentina)
                Location: Buenos Aires, Argentina


                Economic Law Conference

                Organized by the Catholic University of Louvain, Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of Industrial Law and Economic (CEIDIE), Faculty of Law, University of Buenos Aires on August 21, 2015. .
                Location: School of Law, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina

                06/05 – 06/07/2015

                Third National Students of Sciences Congress

                Location: National University of San Luis, San Luis, Argentina



                Análisis e impacto del Tratado de Cooperación en materia de Patentes (PCT)
                Seminar, CEIDIE, Green Room
                Location: University of Buenos Aires, Argentina


                Session “Actualización en políticas públicas para el desarrollo territorial agrario”
                Socioeconomic module, Faculty of Social Sciences University of Buenos Aires
                Location: University of Buenos Aires, Argentina


                Session: Patent Law
                Class on genetic resources, patents and biotechnology
                Master Program of Intellectual Property of the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO)


                Session: Environmental Issues and Intellectual Property
                3 classes on genetic resources, patents and biotechnology
                Master Program of Intellectual Property of the Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences (FLACSO)

                05 – 09/2015

                Training Course on Intellectual Property
                Course held  at the class referred to "The protection of biotechnological inventions"
                Location: University of Buenos Aires, Argentina


                Intellectual Property and its relation to science and open innovation
                Location: Metropolitan Design Center, Buenos Aires, Argentina

                09 – 12/2015

                Second Training Course on Intellectual Property
                Course held  at the class referred to "The protection of biotechnological inventions"
                Location: University of Buenos Aires, Argentina

                Session: Negotiations in the WTO and its Impact on Development
                Master of Latin American Integration, Specialization in Integration Policies of the Faculty of Legal Sciences 
                Location: National University of La Plata, Argentina