Pedro Batista

Pedro Henrique D. Batista

Doctoral Student and Junior Research Fellow

Intellectual Property and Competition Law

+49 89 24246-5406
pedro.batista(at)ip.mpg.de

Areas of Interest

Patent Law, Technical Innovation Protection; Geographical Indications; Biotechnology; Standard Essential Patents (SEP); Genetic Resources & Traditional Knowledge; Antitrust Law and Developing Countries;

Academic Résumé

Since 2016:
Junior Research Fellow at Max-Planck-Institute for Innovation and Competition (Munich)

Since 2013:
Doctoral Student at the University of Munich (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München). Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Reto M. Hilty;
Tutor for German Civil Law at the University of Munich

2013:
Editor in the Intellectual Property and Technology Program at the York University (Toronto, Canada)

2012-2013:
Master of Laws (LL.M.), University of Munich;
Junior Research Fellow at Max-Planck-Institut for Innovation and Competition (Munich)

2006-2011:
Graduation at the Law School of the University of São Paulo - USP (Brazil)

2008-2009:
LL.M. Programme on the Basics of German Law at the University of Munich - First Part (Certificate)

Academic Prizes and Honours

Finalist of the Best Diploma Thesis Award of the Law School of the University of São Paulo - USP (Brazil), 2011.
Subject: Parallel Import in the Brazilian Trademark Law.

Scholarships

Max-Planck-Institute for Innovation and Competition

German Association for the Protection of Intellectual Property (GRUR)

German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD)

Memberships

Brazilian Bar Association (Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil - OAB)

Publications

Contributions to Collected Editions, Commentaries, Handbooks and Encyclopaedias

La Propiedad Intelectual en Latinoamérica y su Rol en el Desarrollo Económico y Social, in: Estudos de Propriedade Intelectual em Homenagem ao Prof. Dr. Denis Borges Barbosa, IODA - Instituto Observatório do Direito Autoral, Curitiba 2021, 25 - 64 (together with Reto M. Hilty et al.).

  • O texto trata do estabelecimento e evolução dos direitos da propriedade in-telectual na América Latina. Perpassa os contextos nos quais esses direitos foram incorporados ao arcabouço legal doméstico. Ainda que as economias latino-americanas sejam mais ou menos frágeis do ponto de vista da pro-priedade intelectual, as conclusões apontam que há diversos desafios a se-rem enfrentados, mas que os países da região têm potencial para superá-los e avançar na proteção e na utilização dos seus ativos intelectuais.
  • This article deals with the establishment and evolution of intellectual property rights in Latin America. It goes through the contexts in which these rights have been in-corporated into the domestic legal framework. Although Latin American economies are more or less fragile from the point of view of intellectual property, the conclusions indicate that there are several challenges to be faced, but that the countries of the region have the potential to overcome them and advance in the protection and use of their intellectual assets.
  • https://codaip.gedai.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/1_Estudos-de-Propriedade-Intelectual-em-homenagem-ao-Prof_Dr_Denis-Borges-Barbosa.pdf

Section 18.5 - Antibiotics, in: Roberto Romandini, Reto M. Hilty, Annette Kur (eds.), Study on the Legal Aspects of Supplementary Protection Certificates in the EU - Final Report, European Commission, Brussels 2018, 435 - 447 (together with Roberto Romandini).

    Section 18.3 - Personalised medicines and companion diagnostics, in: Roberto Romandini, Reto M. Hilty, Annette Kur (eds.), Study on the Legal Aspects of Supplementary Protection Certificates in the EU - Final Report, European Commission, Brussels 2018, 420 - 426.

      Chapter 18 - Specific issues in health technology, in: Roberto Romandini, Reto M. Hilty, Annette Kur (eds.), Study on the Legal Aspects of Supplementary Protection Certificates in the EU - Final Report, European Commission, Brussels 2018, 399 - 470 (together with Roberto Romandini et al.).

        Kapitel 1 - Grundlagen, Aufbau und Methodik, in: Reto M. Hilty, Thomas Jaeger (eds.), Europäisches Immaterialgüterrecht - Funktionen und Perspektiven (MPI Studies on Intellectual Property and Competition Law, 26), Springer, Berlin; Heidelberg 2018, 1 - 58 (together with Sophie Luise Bings et al.). DOI

          Kapitel 3.3 - Spezifische Fehlstellungen mit Bezug auf den Binnenmarkt, in: Reto M. Hilty, Thomas Jaeger (eds.), Europäisches Immaterialgüterrecht - Funktionen und Perspektiven (MPI Studies on Intellectual Property and Competition Law, 26), Springer, Berlin; Heidelberg 2018, 451 - 663 (together with Seyavash Amini et al.). DOI

            Kapitel 3.2 - Fehlstellungen mit Bezug auf Schutzdefizite und Überschutz im materiellen Recht, in: Reto M. Hilty, Thomas Jaeger (eds.), Europäisches Immaterialgüterrecht - Funktionen und Perspektiven (MPI Studies on Intellectual Property and Competition Law, 26), Springer, Berlin; Heidelberg 2018, 287 - 450 (together with Arpi Abovyan et al.). DOI

              Kapitel 3.1 - Fehlstellungen mit Bezug auf die Voraussetzungen, die Reichweite und die Begrenzungen einzelner Schutzrechte, in: Reto M. Hilty, Thomas Jaeger (eds.), Europäisches Immaterialgüterrecht - Funktionen und Perspektiven (MPI Studies on Intellectual Property and Competition Law, 26), Springer, Berlin; Heidelberg 2018, 146 - 286 (together with Reto M. Hilty et al.). DOI

                Journal Articles

                A Implementação do Art. 17 da Diretiva DSM na Alemanha - Visão geral e Questões Controversas na Regulação das Plataformas Digitais (The Implementation of Art. 17 DSM in Germany – Overview and Controversial Questions in the Regulation of Digital Platforms), Revista Rede de Direito Digital, Intelectual & Sociedade 1, 1 (2021), 149 - 207.

                  No Need of Evidence for Moral Damages Compensation after a Trade Mark Infringement, GRUR Int 70, 8 (2021), 764 - 769. DOI

                    Social, Cultural and Economic Aspects of Antimicrobial Resistance, Bulletin of the World Health Organization 98, 12 (2020), 823 - 823A (together with Timo Minssen et al.). DOI

                      IP-Based Incentives Against Antimicrobial Crisis: A European Perspective, IIC 50, 1 (2019), 30 - 76 (together with Dennis Byrski et al.). DOI

                      • The field of antimicrobials is considered to be facing a crisis. Increasing microbial resistance is creating a demand for new drugs, which however is not being matched by privately funded R&D. The reasons for this market failure are of a technical and economic nature. The present article analyzes what changes to IP- based incentives are conceivable in the European Union (EU) in order to address the antimicrobial crisis. Since the assessment of the suitability of the analyzed options depends on interdisciplinary research, this article also proposes a research agenda to be considered for the implementation of public policies in this field.

                      Champagne, Sorbets and Geographical Indications – Critical Appraisal of the CJEU Decision Champagner Sorbet (EUGH Aktenzeichen C-393/16), GRUR Int 67, 6 (2018), 550 - 555 (together with Luc Desaunettes).

                        A Comunicação ao Público da Obra no Direito Autoral –Novos Fundamentos Vindos de Portugal? [The Communication to the Public of Copyright Protected Works – New Foundations from Portugal?], Revista Eletrônica do IBPI - ReVeL 10 (2014), 42 - 83.

                          Gaining Consensus on Comparative Advertising in Brazil, World Trademark Review 37 (2012), 70 - 73 (together with João Vieira da Cunha, Fernando Eid Philipp).

                            Case notes

                            Copyright Protection of Graffiti Art in Brazil: The Limitation of a Copyright Limitation?, IIC 52, 7 (2021), 977 - 982. DOI

                              Comment on "Huawei Technologies" (C-170/13): Standard Essential Patents and Competition Law – How Far Does the CJEU Decision Go?, Court of Justice of the European Union, 15.07.2015 - C-170/13, IIC 47, 2 (2016), 244 - 253 (together with Gustavo Cesar Mazutti). DOI

                              • Legal case: Court of Justice of the European Union, 2015-07-15

                              Zur Patentierung menschlicher embryonaler Stammzellen – kritische Würdigung der Entscheidung des EuGH im Fall Brüstle [Patentability of Human Embryonic Stem Cells – Critical Appraisal oft he CJEU Decision in the Brüstle Case], GRUR Int 62, 6 (2013), 514 - 524.

                                Research Papers

                                Distinctive Signs for Collective Use in Latin America: Development Promotion by Valuing Origin and Quality (Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper, 22-15), 2022, 131 pp. (together with Roxana Carmen Blasetti, Suelen Carls). DOI

                                • Origin-based production, including manufacturing, handicraft, and especially food production in Latin American countries, is essential to their economies. Quality differentiation systems such as geographical indications, designations of origin, collective and certification marks, and quality labels, among others, can play a dual role in the economic and social development of the region and in adding value to their products with the consequent impact on trade. However, those systems are quite particular to each country due to multiple realities. Therefore, it is challenging to promote integration, harmonisation, and /or cooperation within the region. Therefore, this paper aims to offer a comprehensive legal comparative understanding of how those systems work in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay to back up further research, law, and policy-making on this field. The outcome indicates potential ways forward, targeting especially (a) the potential of a regional system of mutual recognition of the protection granted at the national level and (b) the improvement of the system at the domestic level, according to each country's reality and producer's needs.
                                • Spanish version published as Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Discussion Paper No. 21

                                Signos Distintivos Colectivos en Latinoamérica: Fomento del Desarrollo Valorando Origen y Calidad (Distinctive Signs for Collective Use in Latin America: Development Promotion by Valuing Origin and Quality) (Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Discussion Paper, No. 21), 2022, 144 pp. (together with Roxana Carmen Blasetti, Suelen Carls). DOI

                                • La producción desarrollada localmente, incluyendo la manufactura, la artesanía y especialmente la producción de alimentos en los países latinoamericanos, es esencial para sus economías. Los sistemas de diferenciación de la calidad, como las indicaciones geográficas, las denominaciones de origen, las marcas colectivas y de certificación, y los sellos de calidad, entre otros, pueden desempeñar un doble papel, tanto para el desarrollo económico y social de la región como para añadir valor a sus productos con el consiguiente impacto en el comercio. Sin embargo, estos sistemas tienen particularidades en cada país debido a las múltiples realidades existentes. Es por ello que constituye un desafío promover a integración, la armonización y/o la cooperación al interior de la región. Es en este sentido que el presente documento ofrece un estudio comparado de las reglas jurídicas vigentes y de cómo funcionan estos sistemas en Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, México, Paraguay, Perú y Uruguay para respaldar la investigación y la elaboración de leyes y políticas públicas en la materia. El resultado indica las posibles vías de avance, centrándose especialmente (a) en el potencial de un sistema regional de reconocimiento mutuo de la protección dada a nivel nacional (b) en la mejora del sistema a nivel nacional, según la realidad de cada país y las necesidades de los productores.
                                • Origin-based production, including manufacturing, handicraft, and especially food production in Latin American countries, is essential to their economies. Quality differentiation systems such as geographical indications, designations of origin, collective and certification marks, and quality labels, among others, can play a dual role in the economic and social development of the region and in adding value to their products with the consequent impact on trade. However, those systems are quite particular to each country due to multiple realities. Therefore, it is challenging to promote integration, harmonisation, and /or cooperation within the region. Therefore, this paper aims to offer a comprehensive legal comparative understanding of how those systems work in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay to back up further research, law, and policy-making on this field. The outcome indicates potential ways forward, targeting especially (a) the potential of a regional system of mutual recognition of the protection granted at the national level and (b) the improvement of the system at the domestic level, according to each country's reality and producer's needs.
                                • Also published in: Smart IP Initiative
                                • English version published as: Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper 22-15

                                Cultural Heritage and Patent Law – Alternatives for the Protection of Traditional Knowledge and Genetic Resources (Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper, No. 21-24), 2021, 34 pp.

                                • Among the different cultural heritage assets, genetic resources (GR) and traditional knowledge associated to them (TK) have a technical character and enjoy legal protection in the international law. Due to these characteristics, measures of patent law have been often considered for their protection. Proposals have been made for a positive protection of TK through patents, for its defensive protection to avoid third party patents related to it, as well as for the protection of GR and TK through the adoption of a disclosure requirement in patent applications that may ensure the fulfillment of access and use requirements established by international law. In view of the increasing economic relevance of GR and TK and the diverging level of protection assigned to them in different countries, this chapter offers a critical analysis of these controversial mechanisms. Through it, it aims to indicate if and to which extent cultural heritage may be effectively protected through measures related to patent law.
                                • Available at SSRN

                                Traditional Knowledge, Databases and Prior Art – Options for an Effective Defensive Use of TK Against Undue Patent Granting (Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper, No. 21-23), 2021, 34 pp. (together with Reto M. Hilty, Suelen Carls).

                                • The defensive protection of traditional knowledge (TK) is one of the IP law mechanisms envisaged to protect cultural heritage and guarantee the rights of indigenous and local communities. Through it, information on the prior existence of this knowledge is used to prevent the fulfillment of novelty and inventive step as patentability requirements and, therefore, to avoid the patenting of TK-related inventions by third parties. The creation of TK databases that are accessible to foreign patent offices may facilitate the achievement of this goal. However, to be successful, this measure requires TK to be included in the prior art. This chapter aims to establish under which conditions TK can be considered as part of the prior art and thus be effectively used against undue patenting of inventions based on it. Through the analysis of the public accessibility of the knowledge – including in databases – and of the option of extending the prior art to TK that is not publicly accessible, potential gaps in the defensive use of TK are identified and recommendations for the improvement of its effectiveness are made.
                                • Available at SSRN

                                Opinions

                                Position Statement of 5 July 2022 on the Decision of the WTO Ministerial Conference on the TRIPS Agreement adopted on 17 June 2022, 2022, 8 pp. (together with Reto M. Hilty et al.).

                                • On 17 June 2022, after nearly one and a half years of intense debate concerning the proposal to waive IP protection in view of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization adopted a decision on the TRIPS Agreement. It has not waived any intellectual property rights as such but instead mainly clarified the application of the existing TRIPS flexibilities, in particular, regarding compulsory licensing of patents. The Position Statement shows that the Ministerial Decision makes no substantive difference in the existing international legal framework, except for lifting the limitation on the exportation of vaccines manufactured in accordance with the Decision. To the extent that the Decision can make the application of TRIPS flexibilities more expedient, it is to be welcomed. At the same time, it is argued that such facilitating effect should not be limited to, or justified by, the exceptional circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic. More critically, it should not be restricted to COVID-19 vaccines, of which there is currently no shortage – rather, the same level of TRIPS flexibilities should apply to all medicinal products needed to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic.
                                • 2022-07-05__2._Position_Statement_Covid_IP_Waiver.pdf
                                • Also published as: Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper No. 22-14

                                Covid-19 and the Role of Intellectual Property - Position Statement of the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition of 7 May 2021, 2021, 11 pp. (together with Reto M. Hilty et al.).

                                • In this Statement, the authors take a position on the waiver of intellectual property (IP) protection currently being considered by the members of the World Trade Organisation. The waiver was initiated by India and South Africa as a measure to enable rapid access to affordable medical products that are necessary to combat Covid-19. The initiative gained momentum after the US decided to support it. The authors do not consider this path to be expedient. The Statement presents factual and legal arguments why a comprehensive waiver of IP protection is unlikely to be a necessary and suitable measure towards the pursued objective. Overall, it argues that IP rights may so far have played an enabling and facilitating rather than hindering role in overcoming Covid-19. The global community might not be better off if IP rights are waived, neither during nor after the pandemic. There are more efficient and direct ways to supply developing countries with vaccines quickly – if the industrialised countries are willing to do their share.
                                • 2021_05_25_Position_statement_Covid_IP_waiver.pdf
                                • Also published as: Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper No. 21-13

                                Further Publications, Press Articles, Interviews

                                La Propuesta Preliminar de Revisión de las Notas Explicativas de la UPOV sobre las Variedades Esencialmente Derivadas (The Preliminary Draft for the Revision of the UPOV Explanatory Notes on Essential Derived Varieties), Smart IP for Latin America – Buletín No. 5 (2021).

                                Lectures

                                11/18/2021
                                Das Nagoya-Protokoll und seine Umsetzung in der EU und in Deutschland
                                Symposium „Biobanken: Ressource für Wissenschaft, Diagnostik und Therapie“
                                Gemeinschaft Deutscher Kryobanken e.V. (GDK)
                                Location: Münster


                                06/09/2021
                                Vacinas, Patentes e Desenvolvimento (Vaccines, Patents and Development)
                                Invited presentation at the Faculty of Law of Uni7
                                Location: Fortaleza, Brazil


                                11/03/20
                                A Implementação do Art. 17 da Diretiva Europeia sobre Direitos de Autor no Mercado Único Digital na Alemanha – Visão Geral e Questões Controversas na Regulação das Plataformas Digitais (The Implementation of Art. 17 DSM in Germany – Overview and Controversial Aspects of the Regulation of Digital Platforms)
                                XIV CODAIP – Online Congress on Copyright and Public Interest
                                Grupo de Estudos de Direito Auotral e Industrial (GEDAI), Federal University of Parana (UFPR)
                                Ort: Curitiba, Brasilien


                                02/14/20
                                Smart IP for Latin America: The GI Project
                                Max Planck Institute Workshop on Geographical Indications 2020, Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb
                                Ort: München


                                11/18
                                Sham Litigation y Propiedad Intelectual
                                Seminar
                                Organization: Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition, Munich
                                Location: Academia de Intercambios y Estudos Judiciales (AIEJ), Argentina


                                09/18
                                Regulatory Competition under the Nagoya Protocol
                                The Use and Circulation of Genetic Resources under Measures Implementing the Nagoya Protocol
                                Location: Law School, London School of Economics, UK


                                08/18
                                Indicações Geográficas na Alemanha: Importância Socioeconômica, Procedimentos e Particularidades Nacionais
                                (Geographical Indications in Germany: Socioeconomic Relevance, Procedures and National Particularities), Workshop on Geographical Indications of the State of Santa Catarina
                                Location: Corupá, Brazil


                                04/05/16
                                Standard-Essential Patents and Competition Law
                                Guest Lecture at the Law School of the University of São Paulo
                                Organization: Prof. Dr. Juliana Krueger Pela
                                Location: São Paulo, Brazil


                                11/04/15
                                Sham Litigation and Copyright in the European Union
                                3rd CopyCamp 2015
                                Location: Warsaw, Poland


                                10/08/15
                                Biopiracy: New Boundaries for the Patent Law?
                                PhD Course “Law and Economics of Intellectual Property Rights” at the Philipps-Universität Marburg
                                Organization: Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Kerber
                                Location: Marburg, Germany


                                05/04/13
                                Sham Litigation in the Field of Intellectual Property
                                Guest Lecture in the Seminar „Openness“ at the KU Leuven
                                Organization: Prof. Dr. Reto M. Hilty
                                Location: Leuven, Belgium


                                10/20/12
                                Pay-for-Delay-Agreements in the Pharmaceutical Market
                                Guest Lecture in the Seminar „Grenzen“ at the University of Cyprus
                                Organization: Prof. Dr. Reto M. Hilty
                                Location: Nicosia, Cyprus

                                Courses

                                Since 2013:
                                Tutor for German Civil Law at the University of Munich (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München)

                                2013:
                                Organization of the Seminar „New Role and Challenges of the Industrial Property Rights in the European Union – Theory and Praxis“ at the University of Georgia (Tbilisi, Georgia)

                                2007-2008:
                                Tutor for Roman Law at the Law School of the University of São Paulo - USP (Brazil)

                                Tutor for Introduction to Legal Sciences at the Law School of the University of São Paulo - USP (Brazil)