Dr. Begoña Gonzalez Otero

Senior Research Fellow
Gender Equality Officer

Intellectual Property and Competition Law

+49 89 24246-5301
begonia.otero(at)ip.mpg.de

Areas of Interest:

Intellectual Property Law with focus on European Patent Law and Copyright Law, Software Protection, Law of the Digital Economy; Information and Technology Law, emerging technologies (IoT, AI), intersection IP/Competition Law, digital markets, interoperability and standardization

Academic and Professional Résumé

Since 2019
Senior Research Fellow, Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition


2018
Visiting Researcher at IViR, University of Amsterdam (The Netherlands)


2015 — 2018
Academic Dean at EU Business School Munich, Germany.
Undergraduate program coordinator, EU Business School Munich (Germany) and the University of Derby (UK).
Manager of the academic partnership, undergraduate and graduate programs, EU.
Business School (Germany) and the University of Roehampton (UK).
Accredited Lecturer by the University of Derby (UK).


2013 — 2015
Adjunct Lecturer at EU Business School Munich, Germany


2013
Legal Associate at IP Law Firm, Brandstock Services AG, Munich, Germany


2010 – 2014
Doctorate in Law with International Mention at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)
Thesis “The Software Interoperability Debate on European Copyright Law” studies the role of copyright in relation to the advancement of interoperability in the software industry


2010 – 2011
Research Assistant – Instituto de Derecho Industrial, Law School, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)


2010 – 2011
Master’s in Private Law at the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)
Master’s thesis: “The dichotomy between copyright and patent law in protecting computer programs”


2008 — 2009
Lawyer at IP Law Firm, Herrero & Asociados, Madrid, Spain


2008
Master’s in Intellectual Property and Competition Law, Instituto de Derecho Industrial, University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain)
Master’s Thesis: “The role of claims as defining criterion of the scope of patent protection”
Awarded the prize of “2008 Best Master’s Thesis” by Clarke, Modet & Co


2007
Lawyer – Trainee at Tax law firm, Ramon Varela, S.L., A Coruña, Spain


2006
Postgraduate in Tax Strategy, School of Finance of A Coruña (Spain)


2000 – 2006
Master’s in Law at Universidad de A Coruña (Spain)

Academic Prizes and Honours

2016
Extraordinary Doctorate Award by the School of Law for 2014, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)


2015
Nominated as "Champion in Institutional Management" by the Central and East European Management Association (CEEMAN)


2012
ATRIP Essay Competition Winner


2011 — 2013
Visiting Researcher – Scholarship holder at Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property and Competition Law, Munich


2009
Award by Clarke, Modet & Co. to the best Master’s Thesis of the specialization in IP and Competition Law at IDIUS-USC

Memberships

Spanish Bar Association (abogada) – Santiago de Compostela icasantiago.org

Alumni, Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competion, Munich

Member of ALADDA, Spanish Group of the International Literary and Artistic Association (ALAI) aladda.com

Member of the International Association for the Advancement of Teaching and Research in Intellectual Property (ATRIP) atrip.org

Member of “Asociación Española de Derecho del Entretenimiento” (DENAE) denae.es

Academic Member of the Union Internationale des Transports Publics (UITP) uitp.org

Member of the editorial board of Cuaderno Electrónico de Estudios Jurídicos (CEEJ) 

External Reviewer of Actas de Derecho Industrial (ADI)

Publications

Books and Monographs

Interoperabilidad, internet de las cosas y derecho de autor (Propiedad intelectual), Reus, Madrid 2019, 280 pp.

    Contributions to Collected Editions, Commentaries, Handbooks and Encyclopaedias

    Cuando los hechos se imponen a las normas: el derecho de patentes ante la crisis climática, in: Mercedes Curto Polo (ed.), Reflexiones sobre la propiedad industrial en el Siglo XXI (Grandes Tratados), Aranzadi La Ley, Madrid 2024, forthcoming.

      Las excepciones de minería de textos y datos más allá de los derechos de autor, in: C. Saiz, R. Evangelio (eds.), Propiedad Intelectual y Mercado Único Digital Europeo, Tirant lo Blanch, Valencia 2019, 73 - 99.

        Mandating Portability as a Strategy to Achieve Interoperability between On-line Platforms: Pros & Cons, in: Internet Law & Politics Conference Book: Building a European Digital Space, Barcelona 2016.

        • Event: 12th International Conference on Internet, Law & Politics: Building a European Digital Space, Barcelona, 2016-07-07

        Compelling Disclosure of Software Interoperable Information, in: Graeme B. Dinwoodie (ed.), Intellectual Property and General Legal Principles: Is IP a Lex Specialis?, Elgar, Cheltenham 2015, 69 - 90.

          La computación en la nube ("cloud computing")¿Nuevos retos para el derecho de autor?, in: Ana María Tobío Rivas, Angel Fernández Albor Baltar (eds.), Estudios de derecho mercantil: Libro homenaje al Prof. Dr. Dr.h.c. José Antonio Gómez Segade, Marcial Pons, Madrid 2013, 673 - 684.

            Journal Articles

            Navegando la transición digital y ecológica: reflexiones sobre la propiedad industrial y los datos como apuesta por una innovación sostenible, Comunicaciones en Propiedad Industrial y Derecho de la Competencia 100 (2024), forthcoming.

              Position Statement of the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition of 2 May 2023 on the Implementation of the Digital Markets Act (DMA), GRUR Int 72, 9 (2023), 864 - 875 (together with Josef Drexl et al.).

              Is the Transition to E-mobility the Silver Bullet to Achieve Climate-neutral Transport? An Interdisciplinary Review in the Search for Consistency and Collateral Effects, European Business Law Review 34, 1 (2023), 81 - 98 (together with Helmut Esteban).

              • The ambition of the Paris Agreement implies climate neutrality by 2050, unless other large sectors with negative emissions take over. Existing public policies aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve the sustainability of all transport modes, especially cars. Nevertheless, a coherent transition to zero-carbon mobility is crucial for addressing socio-economic challenges and achieving equitable industrial change. If poorly managed, the potential social and economic damage will be unacceptable. Based on a comparative policy and regulatory analysis of electrified vehicles (EVs) in three regions, this paper highlights some of their advantages and disadvantages and makes recommendations to overcome some of the bottlenecks. The transition to electric mobility, if we really want to achieve the Paris goals, has the potential to be a climate policy game-changer and lead the evolution towards an economic system that aims to eliminate waste throughout the value chain and for all stakeholders, taking into account issues of equity and justice. This requires a coherent and globally coordinated policy that not only promotes an innovation pathway for EVs, but also includes energy production from renewable sources while ensuring their supply and independence. Similarly, the industry needs a radical transformation of the automotive sector, energy consumption and current infrastructure investments.
              • https://kluwerlawonline.com/journalarticle/European+Business+Law+Review/34.1/EULR2023007

              Is the Transition to E-mobility the Silver Bullet to Achieve Climate-neutral Transport? An Interdisciplinary Review in the Search for Consistency and Collateral Effects, European Business Law Review 34, 1 (2023), 81 - 98 (together with Helmut Esteban).

              • The ambition of the Paris Agreement implies climate neutrality by 2050, unless other large sectors with negative emissions take over. Existing public policies aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve the sustainability of all transport modes, especially cars. Nevertheless, a coherent transition to zero-carbon mobility is crucial for addressing socio-economic challenges and achieving equitable industrial change. If poorly managed, the potential social and economic damage will be unacceptable. Based on a comparative policy and regulatory analysis of electrified vehicles (EVs) in three regions, this paper highlights some of their advantages and disadvantages and makes recommendations to overcome some of the bottlenecks. The transition to electric mobility, if we really want to achieve the Paris goals, has the potential to be a climate policy game-changer and lead the evolution towards an economic system that aims to eliminate waste throughout the value chain and for all stakeholders, taking into account issues of equity and justice. This requires a coherent and globally coordinated policy that not only promotes an innovation pathway for EVs, but also includes energy production from renewable sources while ensuring their supply and independence. Similarly, the industry needs a radical transformation of the automotive sector, energy consumption and current infrastructure investments.
              • Also published as: Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper No. 22-19 under the title: Promoting Sustainable Innovation-Led Growth? The Potential and Risks of EV Policies

              Accelerating the Transformation of Capitalism for a Truly Circular Society, GRUR Int 71, 6 (2022), 493 - 494 (together with Helmut Esteban). DOI

                IP in Times of Climate Crisis – A Problem or a Solution?, IIC 53, 4 (2022), 501 - 505. DOI

                  Machine Learning Models Under the Copyright Microscope: Is EU Copyright Fit for Purpose?, GRUR Int 70, 11 (2021), 1043 - 1055. DOI

                  • This paper is based on a presentation given in December 2019 at the Lund’s University conference ‘Artificial Intelligence (AI), Data Protection and Intellectual Property in a European context’. The purpose of this article is to analyse the suitability of the copyright system over Machine Learning (ML) models, the so-called ‘core components’ of ML systems. Computer programs protection has always caused certain difficulties for intellectual property law. Internationally, agreement was reached in the 1970s to protect computer programs as literary works of copyright. ML models have been called ‘learning algorithms’, ‘AI computer programs’, and ‘software 2.0’. Yet there is no unanimity about what they are technically. This is relevant from a copyright perspective, because the regime of protection granted by copyright will be different depending on whether the ML model qualifies as a computer program, as a mathematical method, or as another type of work. Additionally, all proprietary and open source software licensing relies on copyright protection. In most open licenses, the license is not triggered if it is applied to something that is not protected by copyright (or related rights). Thus, it seems pertinent to question whether EU copyright law provides adequate protection for the core components of machine learning systems, the ML models.

                  Demystifying the Role of Data Interoperability in the Access and Sharing Debate, Journal of Intellectual Property, Information Technology and Electronic Commerce Law 11, 3 (2021), 252 - 273 (together with Jörg Hoffmann).

                  • In the current data access and sharing debate, data interoperability is widely proclaimed as being key for efficiently reaping the economic welfare enhancing effects of further data re-use. Although we agree, the role data interoperability plays for data access cannot be straightforwardly answered. First, data interoperability, as a technical mechanism, is an inherent part of some regulated data access rights. In these particular cases, data interoperability is the key enabler for efficient (re-)use of data. This example shows the relevance of addressing data interoperability within the corresponding obligation of the access right. It also reveals that interoperability becomes key from a market failure perspective if the failure stems from a lack of efficient data use or potential lock-ins. Another example where data interoperability goes hand in hand with data access regimes is digital platforms. However, digital markets have a tendency to “tipping”. Such a tendency is not natural but induced by individual practices, e.g., the obstruction to interoperability. To this end, subjecting dominant online platform companies to additional interoperability obligations and stricter monitoring could be an effective approach to control the abuse of market power. Likewise, the current EC’s ambition to pave the way towards European digital sovereignty highly depends on the design of a data interoperability policy within the context of access to and re-use of data. With this background in mind, our contribution answers the question of when and how data interoperability, as a precondition to data quality, should be addressed by the legislature. The paper brings together the technical, legal and economic aspects of data interoperability, conceptualizing it within the data sharing debate. It first elaborates on the notion of interoperability in the current data access and data governance frameworks. An analysis of the different technical interoperability facilitators and the existent legal framework that may hinder data interoperability in this context follows. The debate of APIs is still ongoing and brings on fundamental questions to the proper functioning of exclusive rights. To what extent could IPRs and trade secret protection encumber data interoperability? What would be the implications of granting IPR or trade secret protection for APIs, both in terms of raising incentives for their provision and with regard to effects on competition? The paper continues by considering the pros and cons of a more normative approach toward data interoperability. Data interoperability should be treated only as a means to an end and not as an end in itself. It should be taken as a part of the broader data sharing and access discussion, reflecting on the positive and adverse effects alike. To this end, a public law approach within the realm of a data governance solution seems more favorable. Such a governance solution could also entail a more consistent solution to conflicting IP, sui generis database and trade secrets protection in data, which is currently not thoroughly and clearly assessed either. These conflicts need a more holistic assessment of overlapping exclusive rights and their re-usability options.
                  • Also published as: Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper No. 20-16
                  • Also published on Research Gate
                  • Also published at: CFRED CUHK Law on Nov 3, 2020

                  Thinking Slow About IP in Times of Pandemic, IIC 51, 5 (2020), 555 - 558. DOI

                    Brazil joins the Madrid Protocol: A happily ever after tale?, Your LATAM Flagship Blog 2019 14.08.2019.

                      Latin American Trademark Regulations getting closer to International Standards: A Review of the Latest Changes, Your LATAM Flagship Blog 2019.

                      Evaluating the EC Private Data Sharing Principles: Setting a Mantra for Artificial Intelligence Nirvana?, Journal of Intellectual Property, Information Technology and Electronic Commerce Law 10, 1 (2019), 66 - 84.

                      • On April 25, 2018, the European Commission (EC) published a series of communications related to data trading and artificial intelligence. One of them called “Towards a Common European Data Space”, came with a working document: “Guidance on Sharing Private Sector Data in the European Data Economy”. Both the Communication and the guidance introduce two different sets of general principles addressing data sharing, contractual best practices for business-to-business (B2B), and business-to-government (B2G) environments. On the same day, the EC also published a legislative proposal to review the Public Sector (PSI) Directive. These two simultaneous actions are part of a major package of measures, which aim to facilitate the creation of a common data space in the EU and foster European artificial intelligence development. This article focuses on the first action, the “Guidance on Sharing Private Sector Data in the European Economy”. First, because it is one of its kind. Second, although these principles do not qualify as soft law (lacking binding force but having legal effects) the Commission’s communications set action plans for future legislation. Third, because the ultimate goal of these principles is to boost European artificial intelligence (AI) development. However, do these principles set a viable legal framework for data sharing, or is this public policy tool merely a naïve expectation? Moreover, would these principles set a successful path toward a thriving European AI advancement? In this contribution, I try to sketch some answers to these and related questions.

                      Intellectual Property and Standardisation: Key Aspects for an Innovative India, Science, Technology & Public Policy 3, 2 (2019), 14 - 22 (together with Sheetal Chopra). DOI

                      • The telecom sector has been a pivotal force behind India’s digital transformation. Surge in data consumption and rapid adoption of new technologies continue to redefine connectivity and engagement dynamics in India. As the largest data consumer and the second largest smartphone market, India is carving out a new digital identity globally. At the same time such a digital transformation has been brought by innovative companies who wish to be compensated for their efforts, often via licensing. The first part of this paper will explain the impact of standardization on the Indian market. The second part will focus on the key role of an effective patent enforcement system in balancing standardisation contributors and implementers’ interests. On this regard, the paper analyses the changing patent landscape in India. It follows a brief review of the Indian jurisprudence relating to patents essential to a technical standard. Third, the paper will identify some of the main strengths and obstacles of the patent litigation system in this particular field, including some concrete proposals or suggestions for improvement in the latter. Finally, the paper will sketch some general conclusions.

                      On the fence of Article 27(k) of the UPC: The software interoperability "limitation", Kluwer Patent Blog 2014.

                      New legislative means to foster software interoperability within the European Union? A survey of the measures envisaged by the European Commission in the Digital Agenda, Actas de derecho industrial y derecho de autor 34 (2014), 379 - 392.

                        Compelling to Disclose Software Interoperable Information: A Risk for Innovation or a Balanced Solution?, The Journal of World Intellectual Property 16, 1-2 (2013), 2 - 14.

                          Protección de las interfaces gráficas de usuario de programas de ordenador en el ámbito de los derechos de autor, Actas de derecho industrial y derecho de autor 31 (2011), 205 - 230.

                            Organización Europea de Patents: cambios en el Reglamento del CPE, Actas de derecho industrial y derecho de autor 30 (2010).

                              Reviews

                              Review of: Thomas Bopp/ Holger Kircher (eds.): Handbuch Europäischer Patentprozess, Beck, Munich 2019, XVIII + 824 pp., ISBN 978-3-406-66807-4, GRUR Int 69, 10 (2020), 1094. DOI

                                Review of: El Derecho Mercantil en el umbral del siglo XXI: Libro Homenaje al Prof. Dr. Carlos Fernández Nóvoa en su octogésimo cumpleaños, Marcial Pons, Madrid, 2010, Actas de derecho Industrial y derecho de Autor 31 (2010), 1010 - 1011.

                                  Research Papers

                                  Data Governance in Emerging Economies to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals Senegal Country Report Based on the Workshop Shaping Data Sharing Policies in the Agricultural and the Financial Services Sector (Dakar, March 16-17, 2022) (Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper, No. 24-05), 2024, 91 pp., 28.02.2024 (together with Mor Bakhoum et al.).

                                  • The report presented here provides a comprehensive analysis of Senegal's current data governance laws and policies aimed at achieving the UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It draws from insights gathered during a two-day multi-stakeholder workshop held in Dakar. This workshop was part of the broader international project titled 'Data Governance in Emerging Economies to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals,' which underscores the growing global recognition of the crucial role of data governance in SDG attainment.
                                    Structured into four distinct parts, the report provides an exhaustive evaluation of Senegal's regulatory landscape concerning data access and sharing (Part I), laying the groundwork for a detailed examination of the alignment of these regulations with SDGs. It then focuses on the agricultural sector's data-sharing practices and their potential contributions to economic growth and sustainable development (Part II), followed by an exploration of the challenges and opportunities in data governance for financial services in the digital era (Part III). Part IV synthesizes the workshop's discussions, offering valuable insights, conclusions, and forward-looking recommendations.
                                    This scholarly endeavor contributes significantly to the ongoing discourse surrounding data governance and its pivotal role in realizing the SDGs. The nuanced analysis and insights presented herein serve as a valuable resource for policymakers, academics, and practitioners operating at the intersection of data governance, development, and sustainability. Moreover, the outlined recommendations and prospective research agenda provide a roadmap for our future endeavors aimed at advancing data governance in emerging economies, aligning with the vision of the UN AI Advisory Board to govern AI for humanity.
                                  • Le présent rapport propose une analyse approfondie du cadre réglementaire relatif à la gouvernance des données au Sénégal dans l’optique d’atteindre les Objectifs de Développement Durable des Nations Unies (ODD). Il tire parti des informations et données recueillies lors d'un atelier multipartite de deux jours tenu à Dakar. Cet atelier s'inscrivait dans le cadre du projet international plus large intitulé "Gouvernance des données dans les économies émergentes pour atteindre les Objectifs de développement durable (ODD) ». Le projet met en exergue la reconnaissance croissante du rôle crucial de la gouvernance des données dans la réalisation des ODD à l'échelle mondiale.
                                    Structuré en quatre parties distinctes, le rapport offre une évaluation approfondie du cadre réglementaire du Sénégal en ce qui concerne l'accès et le partage des données (Partie I), posant ainsi les bases pour un examen détaillé de l'alignement des dispositions légales avec les ODD. Il se concentre ensuite sur les pratiques de partage de données dans le secteur agricole et leur contribution potentielle à la croissance économique et au développement durable (Partie II), suivi d'une exploration des défis et des opportunités de la gouvernance des données pour les services financiers à l'ère numérique (Partie III). La Partie IV synthétise les discussions de l'atelier, offrant des perspectives, des conclusions et des recommandations prospectives.
                                    Cette étude apporte une contribution significative au débat en cours sur la gouvernance des données et son rôle central dans la réalisation des ODD. L'analyse détaillée et les perspectives présentées ici sont une ressource pour les décideurs, les universitaires et les praticiens qui travaillent sur l'intersection entre la gouvernance des données, le développement et la durabilité. De plus, les recommandations formulées et le programme de recherche prospectif offrent une feuille de route pour les initiatives futures visant à faire progresser la gouvernance des données dans les économies émergentes, s'alignant ainsi sur la vision du Groupe consultatif sur l'IA des Nations unies pour une gouvernance de l’IA au service de l'humanité.

                                  National Expert, Legal Mapping Member States' Copyright Flexibilities, Spain, Recreating Europe, Horizon 2020 Agreement No 870626, 2021.

                                    Machine Learning Models under the copyright microscope: is EU Copyright fit for purpose? (Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper, No. 21-02), 2020, 30 pp.

                                    • This paper is based on a presentation given in December 2019 at the Lund’s University conference "Artificial Intelligence (AI), Data Protection and Intellectual Property in a European context". The purpose of this article is to analyse the suitability of the copyright system over the so-called "core components" of Machine Learning (ML) systems, the ML models. Computer programs protection has always caused certain difficulties for intellectual property law. Internationally is was agreed in the 1970s to protect computer programs as literary works of copyright. ML models have been called "learning algorithms", "AI computer programs", "super-software". Yet, unanimity lacks as to technically agree on what they are. This is relevant from a copyright perspective, because depending on whether the ML model qualifies as a computer program, as a mathematical method or as another type of work, the regime of protection granted by copyright will be different. Additionally, all proprietary and open-source software licensing relies on the copyright protection. In most open licenses, if the license is applied to something that is not protected by copyright (or related rights) the license is not triggered. Thus, it seems relevant to question whether EU copyright law provides adequate protection for the core components of machine learning systems, the ML models. This paper begins with an overview of justifications for copyright protection of computer programs. Understanding how this came about is important to consider protection insufficiencies and how this can later be applied to ML models. It follows a technical overview of the differences between AI software, ML models and algorithms, as to delineate and frame the type of work that a ML model would be. This part also focuses on the differences between traditional (non-AI) software and ML process design and development, and the role that ML models play therein. The third part explains what the legal framework for copyright protection of computer programs is and tests its applicability to ML models. The paper is finalized with a set of conclusions and thoughts for future reflection.
                                    • Available at SSRN

                                    Survey on National Public Sources of Copyright Flexibilities – Spain (National Expert) for the H2020 RIA Project ReCreating Europe, 2020.

                                    Technical Aspects of Artificial Intelligence: An Understanding from an Intellectual Property Law Perspective (Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper, No. 19-13), 2019, 15 pp. (together with Josef Drexl et al.).

                                    • The present Q&A paper aims at providing an overview of artificial intelligence with a special focus on machine learning as a currently predominant subfield thereof. Machine learning-based applications have been discussed intensely in legal scholarship, including in the field of intellectual property law, while many technical aspects remain ambiguous and often cause confusion.
                                      This text was drafted by the Research Group on the Regulation of the Digital Economy of the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition in the pursuit of understanding the fundamental characteristics of artificial intelligence, and machine learning in particular, that could potentially have an impact on intellectual property law. As a background paper, it provides the technological basis for the Group’s ongoing research relating thereto. The current version summarises insights gained from background literature research, interviews with practitioners and a workshop conducted in June 2019 in which experts in the field of artificial intelligence participated.
                                    • Available at SSRN

                                    Informe para la elaboración de un Manual de Buenas Prácticas para la persecución de los delitos contra la propiedad intelectual, report comanded by the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture of Sports, Directorate of Copyright, Madrid, 2018 (together with Julio Aparicio Vaquero et al.).

                                      Opinions

                                      Position Statement of the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition of 2 May 2023 on the Implementation of the Digital Markets Act (DMA), 2023, 33 pp. (together with Josef Drexl et al.).

                                      • Regulation (EU) 2022/1925 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 September 2022 on contestable and fair markets in the digital sector (Digital Markets Act; DMA) entered into force on 1 November 2022 and applies from 2 May 2023. The DMA is a novel type of regulation laying down harmonised rules for core platform services provided or offered by gatekeepers to business users and end users established or located in the Union. It pursues the objective of achieving fairness and contestability in the digital sector across the Union where gatekeepers are present.
                                        In its position statement of 2 May 2023, the Institute acknowledges that uniform rules throughout the European Union and centralised enforcement are necessary to prevent internal market fragmentation and welcomes the first Commission Implementing Regulation for the DMA of 14 April 2023. However, it remains concerned by the DMA’s unique institutional design and its interaction with other laws as outlined under Articles 1(5), 1(6) and 1(7).
                                        In particular, the Institute raises awareness about the possible overly broad blocking effects of the DMA on national rules, which may have the unintended consequences of privileging gatekeepers by jeopardizing future national legislative initiatives. This ultimately obstructs the achievement of contestability and fairness in digital markets. A complementary application of the competition rules and effective enforcement of the DMA is, against this backdrop, crucial. Yet there is uncertainty over administrative enforcement mechanisms, and it is unclear what role private enforcement plays in the current legal design of the DMA. The position statement identifies and examines challenges in the implementation of the DMA, along with recommendations for overcoming them.
                                      • Position_Statement_MPI_DMA.pdf
                                      • Also published as: Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper No. 23-11
                                      • Also published in: GRUR International, Volume 72, Issue 9, September 2023, Pages 864–875

                                      Position Statement of the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition of 25 May 2022 on the Commission's Proposal of 23 February 2022 for a Regulation on Harmonised Rules on Fair Access to and Use of Data (Data Act), 2022, 124 pp. (together with Josef Drexl et al.).

                                      • On 23 February 2022, the European Commission issued a Proposal for a Regulation on harmonised rules on fair access to and use of data (Data Act). The overarching objective of the Proposal is to ‘ensure fairness in the digital environment, stimulate a competitive data market, open opportunities for data-driven innovation and make data available for all’. The Institute hereby presents its Position Statement that features a comprehensive analysis of whether and to what extent the proposed rules might reach the envisaged objectives. It comments on all parts of the Proposal, including the new IoT data access and use right. Finally, the Institute offers a set of recommendations as to how the proposed provisions should be amended in the legislative process to align them better with the objectives of the Data Act.
                                      • Position_Statement_MPI_Data_Act_Formal__13.06.2022.pdf
                                      • Also published as: Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper No. 22-05

                                      Artificial Intelligence and Intellectual Property Law - Position Statement of the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition of 9 April 2021 on the Current Debate, 2021, 26 pp. (together with Josef Drexl et al.).

                                      • This Position Statement presents a broad overview of issues arising at the intersection of AI and IP law based on the work of the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition research group on Regulation of the Digital Economy. While the analysis is approached mainly from a perspective de lege lata, it also identifies questions which require further reflection de lege ferenda supported by in-depth interdisciplinary research. The scope is confined to substantive European IP law, in particular, as regards copyright, patents, designs, databases and trade secrets. Specific AI-related issues are mapped out around the core questions of IP law, namely, the eligibility for protection under the respective IP regimes, allocation of rights and the scope of protection. The structure of the analysis reflects three key components of AI: inputs required for the development of AI systems, AI as a process and the output of AI applications. Overall, it is emphasised that, while recent legal and policy discussions have mostly focused on AI-aided and AI-generated output, a more holistic view that accounts for the role of IP law across the AI innovation cycle is indispensable.
                                      • MPI_PositionPaper__SSRN_21-10.pdf
                                      • Also published as Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper No. 21-10

                                      Comments of the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition of 11 February 2020 on the Draft Issues Paper of the World Intellectual Property Organization on Intellectual Property Policy and Artificial Intelligence, 2020, 9 pp. (together with Josef Drexl et al.).

                                      Further Publications, Press Articles, Interviews

                                      Copyright, Database right, European Union - A Closer Insight into Copyright related Issues in the Position Statement of the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition on the Commission’s Proposal for a Data Act, Kluwer Copyright Blog 2022 29.06.2022 (together with Carolina Banda, Valentina Moscon).

                                        The Jungle Bird, El Diablo, and the Zombie or Machine Learning Models, Computer Programs and Copyright Put to the Test, Kluwer Copyright Blog 2021.

                                        Before the Singularity: Copyright and the Challenges of Artificial Intelligence, Kluwer Copyright Blog 2018 (together with Joao Quintais).

                                        Lectures

                                        03/23/2021

                                        Legal, Economic, and Technical Perspectives on Interoperability or How to Gain Normative Strength via Technical Determination by Law
                                        MIPLC Lecture Series
                                        Video
                                        Location: Munich (online)


                                        12/13/19
                                        AI computer programs: Is EU copyright law fit for purpose? - AI, Data Protection and IP Law in a European context
                                        Organized by: University of Lund
                                        Location: Lund, Sveden


                                        11/07/19
                                        Recognising IPRs in everyday-life items - From innovation to commercialization: how to protect your start-up idea and IP - Workshop
                                        Organized by: EPO-EIT Health
                                        Location: Ghent, Brussels


                                        10/22/19
                                        Computer programs and licensing needs for AI: is EU copyright law fit? - 4th EU-China IP Academic Forum
                                        Organized by: IP Key China
                                        Location: Alicante, Spain


                                        10/17/19

                                        From idea to profit
                                        Webinar series by 4IP Council
                                        Online, 4IP Council


                                        03/2019

                                        Enhancing IP capacity for SMEs’ Intermediaries
                                        International IP Stakeholders’ Meeting (IISM)
                                        Location: Brussels, Belgium


                                        11/2018

                                        Intellectual Property for Startups and Country Managers
                                        EITH Health Training Investment & IP Management
                                        Location: CLC France, Paris, France


                                        11/2018

                                        Legal Rules Constraining TDM beyond Copyright
                                        International Conference Contratos y Licencias de Derecho de Autor en el Mercado Único Digital
                                        Location: University of Valencia, Spain


                                        06/2018

                                        The Roll Out of IoT across the IP Landscape: One Smart Revolution?
                                        Getting Ready for the Internet of Things: Business and Legal Challenges, Magister Lucentivus and 4IP Council
                                        Location: Alicante, Spain


                                        10/2017

                                        International Conference “Electric Mobility is Coming: Get Behind the Wheel”
                                        Head of the Organizing Committee
                                        Location: EU Business School and UITP, Munich, Germany


                                        11/2016

                                        La justa remuneración en contratos de autores y artistas: arts. 14 a 16 de la Propuesta de Directiva del derecho de autor en el Mercado único digital
                                        ALADDA Annual Conference
                                        Location: Valencia, Spain


                                        10/2016

                                        Hacia un Mercado único digital: retos y oportunidades para las industrias creativas
                                        talk organized by Instituto de Cultura de la Generalitat Valencia and InnDEA
                                        Location: Valencia, Spain


                                        06/2016

                                        Mandating Portability as a Strategy to Achieve Interoperability between On-line Platforms: Pros & Cons
                                        Internet Law & Politics Conference: Building a European Digital Space
                                        Location: Barcelona, Spain


                                        06/2016

                                        Copyright and its Discontents
                                        ATRIP Conference
                                        Location: Krakow, Poland


                                        07/2014

                                        The interface between the right to data portability and the current intellectual property framework on software: Repercussions for interoperability policies in the cloud
                                        ATRIP Conference
                                        Location: Montpellier, France


                                        06/2013

                                        Compelling Disclosure of Software Interoperable Information
                                        ATRIP Conference
                                        Location: Oxford, United Kingdom


                                        12/2012

                                        Interoperabilität
                                        2. Alumni-Jahrestagung des MPI
                                        Location: Munich, Germany


                                        10/2012

                                        Open Software and Open Design
                                        Berliner Kolloquium für Internet und Gesellschaft
                                        Location: Berlin, Germany

                                        Courses

                                        Guest Lectures

                                        06/2019

                                        The Roll Out of IoT and AI across the IP Landscape: Digitalis?
                                        Magister Lucentivus
                                        Location: Alicante, Spanien


                                        07/2018

                                        Artificial Intelligence: Looming Challenges for the Creative Industries
                                        Teaching Staff Seminar
                                        Location: Berklee College of Music, Valencia, Spanien


                                        04/2016

                                        Legal Implications of Technology for the Creative Industries
                                        Master in Global Entertainment & Music Business
                                        Location: Berklee College of Music, Valencia, Spanien


                                        04/2011

                                        Consumers and E-commerce
                                        VII Jean Monet Seminar on European Integration and Private Law
                                        Location: School of Law, Universität Santiago de Compostela, Spanien



                                        Undergraduate and Graduate Courses

                                        Spring Semester 2019, 2015, 2014

                                        Business Law Course
                                        Bachelor of Sciences in International Business, undergraduate, first year
                                        Location: EU Business School Munich, Munich, Germany


                                        Fall Semester 2015, 2014

                                        Knowledge Management
                                        Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration, undergraduate, second year
                                        Location: EU Business School Munich, Munich, Germany


                                        Spring Semester 2015, 2014

                                        International Law
                                        Bachelor of Arts in International Relations, undergraduate, third year
                                        Location: EU Business School Munich, Munich, Germany


                                        2015, 2014, 2013

                                        Sports Sponsorship
                                        MBA in Sports Management, graduate, third term
                                        Location: EU Business School Munich, Munich, Germany


                                        2014

                                        Mass Media Strategy, Planning and Media Law
                                        MBA in Communication & Public Relations, third term
                                        Location: EU Business School Munich, Munich, Germany