Dr. Begoña Gonzalez Otero

Wissenschaftliche Referentin
Gleichstellungsbeauftragte

Immaterialgüter- und Wettbewerbsrecht

+49 89 24246-5301
begonia.otero(at)ip.mpg.de

Arbeitsbereiche:

Immaterialgüterrecht mit Schwerpunkt Europäisches Patentrecht und Urheberrecht, Softwareschutz, Recht der Digitalwirtschaft; Informations- und Technologierecht, neue Technologien (IoT, AI), Schnittstellen IP/Wettbewerbsrecht, digitale Märkte, Interoperabilität und Standardisierung

Wissenschaftlicher und beruflicher Werdegang

Seit 2019
Wissenschaftliche Referentin, Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb


2018 — 2019 (freiberuflich)
In-House Beraterin, Lateinamerikanischer IPR Helpdesk.
Rechtsexpertin, Ericsson AB.
Co-Projektleiterin: Neugestaltung der Website zu den Rechten des geistigen Eigentums für KMU für die Vereinigung des 4IP Council.
General Counsel, EU Business School Group.


2018
Gastwissenschaftlerin, IViR, University of Amsterdam (Niederlande)


2015 — 2018
Dekanin, EU Business School München
Koordinatorin des Bachelor-Studiengangs, EU Business School München und University of Derby (GB)
Managerin der akademischen Partnerschaft, Bachelor- und Masterprogramme, der EU Business School und der University of Roehampton (GB)
Lehrbeauftragte, University of Derby (GB)


2013 — 2015
Lehrbeauftragte, EU Business School Munich, Germany


2013
Juristische Mitarbeiterin, Brandstock Services AG (Kanzlei für IP-Recht), Munich, Germany


2010 – 2014
Promotion in Rechtswissenschaften mit internationaler Erwähnung an der Universität Santiago de Compostela (Spanien). Die Dissertation "The Software Interoperability Debate on European Copyright Law" untersucht die Rolle des Urheberrechts in Bezug auf die Weiterentwicklung der Interoperabilität in der Softwareindustrie.


2010 – 2011
Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin, Instituto de Derecho Industrial, Juristische Fakultät, Universität Santiago de Compostela (Spanien)


2010 – 2011
Master in Privatrecht an der Universität Santiago de Compostela, (Spanien)
Masterarbeit: "Die Dichotomie zwischen Urheber- und Patentrecht beim Schutz von Computerprogrammen"


2008 — 2009
Rechtsanwältin, Herrero & Asociados (Kanzlei für IP-Recht), Madrid, Spain


2008
Master in Immaterialgüter- und Wettbewerbsrecht, Instituto de Derecho Industrial, Universität Santiago de Compostela (Spanien)
Masterarbeit: "Die Rolle der Ansprüche als Definitionskriterium für den Umfang des Patentschutzes"
Ausgezeichnet mit dem Preis "2008 Best Master's Thesis" von Clarke, Modet & Co.


2007
Rechtsreferendarin, Ramon Varela, S.L. (Kanzlei für Steuerrecht), A Coruña, Spain


2006
Aufbaustudium Steuerstrategie, School of Finance A Coruña (Spanien)


2000 – 2006
Master in Rechtswissenschaften, Universität A Coruña (Spanien)

Ehrungen und wissenschaftliche Preise

2016
Außerordentlicher Promotionpreis der Juristischen Fakultät Santiago de Compostela
Nominierung zum Titel "Champion in Institutional Management" durch die Central and East European Management Association (CEEMAN)


2015
Nominierung zum Titel "Champion in Research" durch die Central and East European Management Association (CEEMAN)


2012
Gewinnerin des ATRIP Essay-Wettbewerbs


2011 — 2013
Stipendiatin am Max-Planck-Institut für Immaterialgüter- und Wettbewerbsrecht, München


2009
Auszeichnung von Clarke, Modet & Co. zur besten Masterarbeit der Fachrichtung IP- und Wettbewerbsrecht am IDIUS-USC

Mitgliedschaften

Spanische Anwaltskammer, Santiago de Compostela icasantiago.org

Alumni, Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb, München

ALADDA, spanische Gruppe der International Literary and Artistic Association (ALAI) aladda.com

Mitglied der International Association for the Advancement of Teaching and Research in Intellectual Property (ATRIP) atrip.org

Mitglied der Asociación Española de Derecho del Entretenimiento (DENAE) denae.es

Akademisches Mitglied der Union Internationale des Transports Publics (UITP) uitp.org

Redaktionelles Mitglied von Cuaderno Electrónico de Estudios Jurídicos (CEEJ)

Externe Gutachterin der Actas de Derecho Industrial (ADI)

Publikationen

Monographien und andere selbständige Publikationen

Interoperabilidad, internet de las cosas y derecho de autor (Propiedad intelectual), Reus, Madrid 2019, 280 S.

    Beiträge in Sammelwerken, Kommentierungen, Handbüchern und Lexika

    Las excepciones de minería de textos y datos más allá de los derechos de autor, in: C. Saiz, R. Evangelio (Hg.), Propiedad Intelectual y Mercado Único Digital Europeo, Tirant lo Blanch, Valencia 2019, 73 - 99.

      Mandating Portability as a Strategy to Achieve Interoperability between On-line Platforms: Pros & Cons, in: Internet Law & Politics Conference Book: Building a European Digital Space, Barcelona 2016.

      • Event: 12th International Conference on Internet, Law & Politics: Building a European Digital Space, Barcelona, 2016-07-07

      Compelling Disclosure of Software Interoperable Information, in: Graeme B. Dinwoodie (Hg.), Intellectual Property and General Legal Principles: Is IP a Lex Specialis?, Elgar, Cheltenham 2015, 69 - 90.

        La computación en la nube ("cloud computing")¿Nuevos retos para el derecho de autor?, in: Ana María Tobío Rivas, Angel Fernández Albor Baltar (Hg.), Estudios de derecho mercantil: Libro homenaje al Prof. Dr. Dr.h.c. José Antonio Gómez Segade, Marcial Pons, Madrid 2013, 673 - 684.

          Aufsätze

          Thinking Slow About IP in Times of Pandemic, IIC 51, 5 (2020), 555 - 558. DOI

            Brazil joins the Madrid Protocol: A happily ever after tale?, Your LATAM Flagship Blog 2019 14.08.2019.

              Latin American Trademark Regulations getting closer to International Standards: A Review of the Latest Changes, Your LATAM Flagship Blog 2019.

              Evaluating the EC Private Data Sharing Principles: Setting a Mantra for Artificial Intelligence Nirvana?, Journal of Intellectual Property, Information Technology and Electronic Commerce Law 10, 1 (2019), 66 - 84.

              • On April 25, 2018, the European Commission (EC) published a series of communications related to data trading and artificial intelligence. One of them called “Towards a Common European Data Space”, came with a working document: “Guidance on Sharing Private Sector Data in the European Data Economy”. Both the Communication and the guidance introduce two different sets of general principles addressing data sharing, contractual best practices for business-to-business (B2B), and business-to-government (B2G) environments. On the same day, the EC also published a legislative proposal to review the Public Sector (PSI) Directive. These two simultaneous actions are part of a major package of measures, which aim to facilitate the creation of a common data space in the EU and foster European artificial intelligence development. This article focuses on the first action, the “Guidance on Sharing Private Sector Data in the European Economy”. First, because it is one of its kind. Second, although these principles do not qualify as soft law (lacking binding force but having legal effects) the Commission’s communications set action plans for future legislation. Third, because the ultimate goal of these principles is to boost European artificial intelligence (AI) development. However, do these principles set a viable legal framework for data sharing, or is this public policy tool merely a naïve expectation? Moreover, would these principles set a successful path toward a thriving European AI advancement? In this contribution, I try to sketch some answers to these and related questions.

              IP and Standardization: Key Aspects for an innovative India, International Journal of Science, Technology and Society 2019, forthcoming (gemeinsam mit Sheetal Chopra).

                Before the Singularity: Copyright and the Challenges of Artificial Intelligence, Kluwer Copyright Blog 2018 (gemeinsam mit Joao Quintais).

                On the fence of Article 27(k) of the UPC: The software interoperability "limitation", Kluwer Patent Blog 2014.

                New legislative means to foster software interoperability within the European Union? A survey of the measures envisaged by the European Commission in the Digital Agenda, Actas de derecho industrial y derecho de autor 34 (2014), 379 - 392.

                  Compelling to Disclose Software Interoperable Information: A Risk for Innovation or a Balanced Solution?, The Journal of World Intellectual Property 16, 1-2 (2013), 2 - 14.

                    Protección de las interfaces gráficas de usuario de programas de ordenador en el ámbito de los derechos de autor, Actas de derecho industrial y derecho de autor 31 (2011), 205 - 230.

                      Organización Europea de Patents: cambios en el Reglamento del CPE, Actas de derecho industrial y derecho de autor 30 (2010).

                        Rezensionen

                        Rezension von: Thomas Bopp/ Holger Kircher (eds.): Handbuch Europäischer Patentprozess, Beck, Munich 2019, XVIII + 824 pp., ISBN 978-3-406-66807-4, GRUR Int 69, 10 (2020), 1094. DOI

                          Rezension von: El Derecho Mercantil en el umbral del siglo XXI: Libro Homenaje al Prof. Dr. Carlos Fernández Nóvoa en su octogésimo cumpleaños, Marcial Pons, Madrid, 2010, Actas de derecho Industrial y derecho de Autor 31 (2010), 1010 - 1011.

                            Forschungspapiere

                            Artificial Intelligence and Intellectual Property Law - Position Statement of the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition of 9 April 2021 on the Current Debate (Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper, No. 21-10), 2021, 26 S. (gemeinsam mit Josef Drexl et al.).

                            • This Position Statement presents a broad overview of issues arising at the intersection of AI and IP law based on the work of the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition research group on Regulation of the Digital Economy. While the analysis is approached mainly from a perspective de lege lata, it also identifies questions which require further reflection de lege ferenda supported by in-depth interdisciplinary research. The scope is confined to substantive European IP law, in particular, as regards copyright, patents, designs, databases and trade secrets. Specific AI-related issues are mapped out around the core questions of IP law, namely, the eligibility for protection under the respective IP regimes, allocation of rights and the scope of protection. The structure of the analysis reflects three key components of AI: inputs required for the development of AI systems, AI as a process and the output of AI applications. Overall, it is emphasised that, while recent legal and policy discussions have mostly focused on AI-aided and AI-generated output, a more holistic view that accounts for the role of IP law across the AI innovation cycle is indispensable.
                            • Available at SSRN

                            Machine Learning Models under the copyright microscope: is EU Copyright fit for purpose? (Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper, No. 21-02), 2020, 30 S.

                            • This paper is based on a presentation given in December 2019 at the Lund’s University conference "Artificial Intelligence (AI), Data Protection and Intellectual Property in a European context". The purpose of this article is to analyse the suitability of the copyright system over the so-called "core components" of Machine Learning (ML) systems, the ML models. Computer programs protection has always caused certain difficulties for intellectual property law. Internationally is was agreed in the 1970s to protect computer programs as literary works of copyright. ML models have been called "learning algorithms", "AI computer programs", "super-software". Yet, unanimity lacks as to technically agree on what they are. This is relevant from a copyright perspective, because depending on whether the ML model qualifies as a computer program, as a mathematical method or as another type of work, the regime of protection granted by copyright will be different. Additionally, all proprietary and open-source software licensing relies on the copyright protection. In most open licenses, if the license is applied to something that is not protected by copyright (or related rights) the license is not triggered. Thus, it seems relevant to question whether EU copyright law provides adequate protection for the core components of machine learning systems, the ML models. This paper begins with an overview of justifications for copyright protection of computer programs. Understanding how this came about is important to consider protection insufficiencies and how this can later be applied to ML models. It follows a technical overview of the differences between AI software, ML models and algorithms, as to delineate and frame the type of work that a ML model would be. This part also focuses on the differences between traditional (non-AI) software and ML process design and development, and the role that ML models play therein. The third part explains what the legal framework for copyright protection of computer programs is and tests its applicability to ML models. The paper is finalized with a set of conclusions and thoughts for future reflection.
                            • Available at SSRN

                            Demystifying the Role of Data Interoperability in the Access and Sharing Debate (Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper, No. 20-16), 2020, 37 S. (gemeinsam mit Jörg Hoffmann).

                            • In the current data access and sharing debate, data interoperability is widely proclaimed as being key for efficiently reaping the economic welfare enhancing effects of further data re-use. Although, we agree, we found that the current law and policy framework pertaining data interoperability was missing a groundworks analysis. Without a clear understanding of the notions of interoperability, the role of data standards and application programming interfaces (APIs) to achieve this ambition, and the IP and trade secrets protection potentially hindering it, any regulatory analysis within the data access discussion will be incomplete. Any attempt at untangling the role of data interoperability in the access and sharing regimes requires a thorough understanding of the underlying technology and a common understanding of the different notions of data interoperability. The paper firstly explains the technical complexity of interoperability and its enablers, namely data standards and application programming interfaces. It elaborates on the reasons data interoperability counts with different levels and puts emphasis on the fact that data interoperability is indirectly tangled to the data access right. Since data interoperability may be part of the legal obligations correlating to the access right, the scope of interoperability is and has already been subject to courts’ interpretation. While this may give some manoeuvre for balanced decision-making, it may not guarantee the ambition of efficient re-usability of data. This is why data governance market regulation under a public law approach is becoming more favourable. Yet, and this is elaborated in a second step, the paper builds on the assumption that interoperability should not become another policy on its own. This is followed by a competition economics assessment, taking into account that data interoperability is always a matter of degree and a lack of data interoperability does not necessarily lead to a market foreclosure of competitors and to causing harm to consumer welfare. Additionally, parts of application programming interfaces (APIs) may be protected under IP rights and trade secrets, which might conflict with data access rights. Instead of further solving the conflicting regimes within the respective legal regimes of the exclusive rights the paper concludes by suggesting that (sector-specific) data governance solutions should deal with this issue and align the different interests implied. This may provide for better, practical and well-balanced solutions instead of impractical and dysfunctional exceptions and limitations within the IP and trade secrets regimes.
                            • Available at SSRN
                            • Also published on Research Gate
                            • Also published at: CFRED CUHK Law on Nov 3, 2020

                            Survey on National Public Sources of Copyright Flexibilities – Spain (National Expert) for the H2020 RIA Project ReCreating Europe, 2020.

                            Technical Aspects of Artificial Intelligence: An Understanding from an Intellectual Property Law Perspective (Max Planck Institute for Innovation & Competition Research Paper, No. 19-13), 2019, 15 S. (gemeinsam mit Josef Drexl et al.).

                            • The present Q&A paper aims at providing an overview of artificial intelligence with a special focus on machine learning as a currently predominant subfield thereof. Machine learning-based applications have been discussed intensely in legal scholarship, including in the field of intellectual property law, while many technical aspects remain ambiguous and often cause confusion. This text was drafted by the Research Group on the Regulation of the Digital Economy of the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition in the pursuit of understanding the fundamental characteristics of artificial intelligence, and machine learning in particular, that could potentially have an impact on intellectual property law. As a background paper, it provides the technological basis for the Group’s ongoing research relating thereto. The current version summarises insights gained from background literature research, interviews with practitioners and a workshop conducted in June 2019 in which experts in the field of artificial intelligence participated.
                            • Available at SSRN

                            Informe para la elaboración de un Manual de Buenas Prácticas para la persecución de los delitos contra la propiedad intelectual, report comanded by the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture of Sports, Directorate of Copyright, Madrid, 2018 (gemeinsam mit Julio Aparicio Vaquero et al.).

                              Stellungnahmen

                              Comments of the Max Planck Institute for Innovation and Competition of 11 February 2020 on the Draft Issues Paper of the World Intellectual Property Organization on Intellectual Property Policy and Artificial Intelligence, 2020, 9 S. (gemeinsam mit Josef Drexl et al.).

                              Vorträge

                              13.12.19

                              AI computer programs: Is EU copyright law fit for purpose? AI, Data Protection and IP Law in a European context
                              Veranstalter: Universität Lund
                              Ort: Lund, Schweden


                              07.11.19

                              Recognising IPRs in everyday-life items - From innovation to commercialization: how to protect your start-up idea and IP
                              EPO-EIT Health Workshop
                              Ort: Ghent, Belgien


                              22.10.19

                              Computer programs and licensing needs for AI: is EU copyright law fit?
                              4th EU-China IP Academic Forum
                              Veranstalter: IP Key China
                              Ort: Alicante, Spanien


                              17.10.19

                              From idea to profit
                              Webinar series by 4IP Council
                              Online, 4IP Council


                              03.2019

                              Enhancing IP capacity for SMEs’ Intermediaries
                              International IP Stakeholders’ Meeting (IISM)
                              Ort: Brüssel, Belgien


                              11.2018

                              Intellectual Property for Startups and Country Managers
                              EITH Health Training Investment & IP Management
                              Ort: CLC France, Paris, Frankreich


                              11.2018

                              Legal Rules Constraining TDM beyond Copyright
                              International Conference Contratos y Licencias de Derecho de Autor en el Mercado Único Digital
                              Ort: Universität Valencia, Spanien


                              06.2018

                              The Roll Out of IoT across the IP Landscape: One Smart Revolution?
                              Getting Ready for the Internet of Things: Business and Legal Challenges, Magister Lucentivus and 4IP Council
                              Ort: Alicante, Spanien


                              10.2017

                              International Conference “Electric Mobility is Coming: Get Behind the Wheel”
                              Head of the Organizing Committee
                              Ort: EU Business School and UITP, München, Deutschland


                              11.2016

                              La justa remuneración en contratos de autores y artistas: arts. 14 a 16 de la Propuesta de Directiva del derecho de autor en el Mercado único digital
                              ALADDA Annual Conference
                              Ort: Valencia, Spanien


                              10.2016

                              Hacia un Mercado único digital: retos y oportunidades para las industrias creativas
                              talk organized by Instituto de Cultura de la Generalitat Valencia and InnDEA
                              Ort: Valencia, Spanien


                              06.2016

                              Mandating Portability as a Strategy to Achieve Interoperability between On-line Platforms: Pros & Cons
                              Internet Law & Politics Conference: Building a European Digital Space
                              Ort: Barcelona, Spanien


                              06.2016

                              Copyright and its Discontents
                              ATRIP Conference
                              Ort: Krakau, Polen


                              07.2014

                              The interface between the right to data portability and the current intellectual property framework on software: Repercussions for interoperability policies in the cloud
                              ATRIP Conference
                              Ort: Montpellier, Frankreich


                              06.2013

                              Compelling Disclosure of Software Interoperable Information
                              ATRIP Conference
                              Ort: Oxford, Großbritannien


                              12.2012

                              Interoperabilität
                              2. Alumni-Jahrestagung des MPI
                              Ort: Müchen, Deutschland


                              10.2012

                              Open Software and Open Design
                              Berliner Kolloquium für Internet und Gesellschaft
                              Ort: Berlin, Deutschland

                              Lehrveranstaltungen

                              Gastvorträge

                              06/2019

                              The Roll Out of IoT and AI across the IP Landscape: Digitalis?
                              Magister Lucentivus
                              Ort: Alicante, Spanien


                              07/2018

                              Artificial Intelligence: Looming Challenges for the Creative Industries
                              Teaching Staff Seminar
                              Ort: Berklee College of Music, Valencia, Spanien


                              04/2016

                              Legal Implications of Technology for the Creative Industries
                              Master in Global Entertainment & Music Business
                              Ort: Berklee College of Music, Valencia, Spanien


                              04/2011

                              Consumers and E-commerce
                              VII Jean Monet Seminar on European Integration and Private Law
                              Ort: School of Law, Universität Santiago de Compostela, Spanien



                              Bachelor- und Masterstudiengänge

                              Frühjahrssemester 2019, 2015, 2014

                              Business Law Course
                              Bachelor of Sciences in International Business, undergraduate, first year
                              Ort: EU Business School Munich, München, Deutschland


                              Herbstsemester 2015, 2014

                              Knowledge Management
                              Bachelor of Arts in Business Administration, undergraduate, second year
                              Ort: EU Business School Munich, München, Deutschland


                              Frühjahrssemester 2015, 2014

                              International Law
                              Bachelor of Arts in International Relations, undergraduate, third year
                              Ort: EU Business School Munich, München, Deutschland


                              2015, 2014, 2013

                              Sports Sponsorship
                              MBA in Sports Management, graduate, third term
                              Ort: EU Business School Munich, München, Deutschland


                              2014

                              Mass Media Strategy, Planning and Media Law
                              MBA in Communication & Public Relations, third term
                              Ort: EU Business School Munich, München, Deutschland