334 Veranstaltungen gefunden.

Seminar  |  27.11.2019 | 12:00  –  13:30

Brown Bag-Seminar: Algorithmic Explanations in the Field

Daniela Sele (ETH Zürich)

Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb, München, Raum 313

The increasing use of algorithms in legal and economic decision-making has led to calls for a “right to explanation” to be given to the subjects of automated decision-making. A growing literature in computer science has proposed a vast number of methods to generate such explanations. At the same time, legal and social science scholars have discussed what characteristics explanations should have to make them legally and ethically acceptable. These debates suffer from two shortcomings. First, very little connection exists between these two strands of literature. Second, we do not know what effects such explanations would have on the behavior of decision subjects and on their perception of decision-making algorithms. In this field experiment, we aim to address these gaps by empirically testing how different types of explanations affect the subjects’ attitude towards decision-making algorithms. Distilling various factors that constitute a good explanation of algorithmic decision-making, we collect data on which factors are useful to decision subjects: local or global explanations, explanations which are selective, contrastive and/or are displayed as conditional control statements versus correlations. In the setting of a scholarship awarded by a machine learning algorithm to promising students, our experiment thus investigates which kind of explanations can lead to increased acceptance of algorithmic decision-making.

Ansprechpartner: Dr. Marina Chugunova

Workshop  |  22.11.2019, 09:30  –  23.11.2019, 12:00

Smart Urban Mobility Workshop

Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb, Raum E10 (auf Einladung)

Die Phänomene im Zusammenhang mit der Entwicklung intelligenter Lösungen für die städtische Mobilität werfen Fragen in verschiedenen Rechtsbereichen auf, die das Zusammenspiel von Technologie, Recht und öffentlicher Ordnung aufzeigen. Diese komplexe Beziehung kann aus verschiedenen Blickwinkeln analysiert werden: aus der Perspektive des öffentlichen Sektors, aus der Perspektive des privaten Sektors und aus der Perspektive der Bürger.

Vortrag  |  21.11.2019 | 16:00  –  18:00

Exploring the Logic of Intelligence

Pei Wang (Temple University, Philadelphia), in Zusammenarbeit mit bidt (Bayerisches Forschungsinstitut für Digitale Transformation – BAdW), Raum E10 (nur auf Anmeldung)

Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb, München, Raum E10

Professor Wang introduces a theory of intelligence, a formal model of the theory, and a computer implementation of the model. He takes “Intelligence” as the ability of adaptation under insufficient knowledge and resources. Non-Axiomatic Reasoning System (NARS) is a formal model realizing this theory, which has been implemented in an open source project OpenNARS. The system shows many properties observed in the human mind. Practical applications of this technique are also under development.

Zur Anmeldung

Siehe auch anschließende Veranstaltung in der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften:

Wettlauf um KI – Entwicklungen und Perspektiven in Deutschland und China

Mehr Informationen und Anmeldung

Seminar  |  20.11.2019 | 12:00  –  13:30

Brown Bag-Seminar: Strategic Behavior in Contests with Ability Heterogeneous Agents: Evidence from Field Data

Tom Grad (Copenhagen Business School)

Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb, München, Raum 313

Strategic behavior can not only affect effort in contests but also undermine their selection function. We investigate two forms of strategic behavior of contestants with heterogeneous ability in large contests: Sabotage and self-promotion. We test predictions from a simple theoretical model in a large dataset of more than 38 million peer-ratings by 75,000 individuals. We find a) that strategic behavior influences outcomes in 25% of close contests, b) that self-promotion is the dominant form of strategic behavior of low-ability contestants, and c) that high-ability contestants are both culprits and targets of sabotage. We leverage two natural experiments to rule out alternative explanations.

Ansprechpartner: Klaus Keller, M.A.

Seminar  |  15.11.2019 | 12:00  –  13:30

Brown Bag-Seminar: Innovation Activities and Medtech Partnerships in Japan

Susanne Brucksch (DIJ Tokio)

Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb, München, Raum 313

Japan counts as the third largest market for medical devices after the US and the EU, and displays an exceptionally high number of certain technologies per capita (e.g. CT and MRI). Surprisingly, most appliances are imported to Japan nowadays pointing to a drop in innovation activities since the 1990s. A change can be observed rather recently under PM Abe by integrating the field of medical devices into the scheme of the Japan Revitalisation Strategy (Abenomics), which aims at “renkei” ni yoru “jitsuyōka” (market cultivation through partnerships) between medical centres, academia and manufacturing companies (METI 2016). Against this backdrop, this paper sheds light on which factors lead to this situation by focusing particularly on disciplinary boundaries. What is more, the presentation highlights current efforts on medtech partnerships, cluster policies and matching-hubs to cross these boundaries and to encourage innovation activities in the field of medical devices in Japan. The paper mainly draws on insights from research literature and preliminary findings from two case studies. Based on these findings it can be said that regional authorities and municipalities promote R&D activities by offering subsidies to small and medium-size enterprises (SME) and organising matching-hubs for ikō renkei (medtech partnership) such as in Tokyo, Kobe, Kyushu, Fukushima and Shizuoka but with varying degrees of success.

Ansprechpartner: Dr. Marina Chugunova

Seminar  |  12.11.2019 | 18:00  –  19:30

Institutsseminar: Data Sharing in Digital Health Innovation Markets: Carrots and Sticks Under EU Law

Giulia Schneider (auf Einladung)

Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb, Raum E10

Moderation: Jörg Hoffmann

Seminar  |  06.11.2019 | 12:00  –  13:30

Brown Bag-Seminar: Measuring the Private and Social Returns to R&D: Unintended Spillovers Versus Technology Markets

Pere Arque-Castells (University of Groningen)

Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb, München, Raum 313

Estimates of the private and social rates of return to investments in R&D are of high interest to economists, managers and policymakers. An important problem in the literature is that the canonical model used to obtain such estimates only allows R&D to diffuse through spillovers. This is a serious limitation in a world increasingly characterized by active intellectual property (IP) enforcement and monetization. We create a new dataset of interactions in the market for technology between publicly held firms in the U.S. which allows us to generalize the canonical model with both spillovers and market-mediated technology transfers. We obtain four main findings using changes in tax incentives for R&D to identify causal effects. First, R&D accessed through technology markets is an important input in the generation of revenue. Second, conventional spillover estimates are contaminated with technology transfers because the weights traditionally used to capture spillovers are strongly correlated with matching in the market for technology. Third, the private rate of return to R&D is larger in the generalized framework while the wedge between the social and private returns is smaller. Finally, back of the envelope estimates suggest that the gains from trade in the market for technology might be larger than $1 trillion per year, accounting for 10% of total revenue in Compustat.

Ansprechpartner: Dr. Rainer Widmann

Seminar  |  30.10.2019 | 12:00  –  13:30

Brown Bag-Seminar: What’s the Problem? How Crowdsourcing Contributes to Identifying Scientific Research Questions

Susanne Beck (Ludwig Boltzmann Gesellschaft)

Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb, München, Raum 313

An increasing number of research projects successfully involves the general public (the crowd) in tasks such as collecting observational data or classifying images to answer scientists’ research questions. Although such crowd science projects have generated great hopes among scientists and policy makers, it is not clear whether the crowd can also meaningfully contribute to other stages of the research process, in particular the identification of research questions that should be studied. We first develop a conceptual framework that ties different aspects of “good” research questions to different types of knowledge. We then discuss potential strengths and weaknesses of the crowd compared to professional scientists in developing research questions, while also considering important heterogeneity among crowd members. Data from a series of online and field experiments has been gathered and is currently analyzed to test individual- and crowd-level hypotheses focusing on the underlying mechanisms that influence a crowd’s performance in generating research questions. Our results aim for advancing the literatures on crowd and citizen science as well as the broader literature on crowdsourcing and the organization of open and distributed knowledge production. Our findings have important implications for scientists and policy makers.

Ansprechpartner: Michael E. Rose, Ph.D.

Seminar  |  25.10.2019 | 12:00  –  13:30

Brown Bag-Seminar: International Knowledge Flows Between Industry Inventors and Universities: The Role of Multinational Companies

Aldo Geuna (University of Turin)

Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb, München, Raum 313

We investigate the determinants of industry researchers’ interactions with universities in different localities, distinguishing between local and international universities. We analyze the extent to which local and international interactions are enabled by different types of individual personal networks (education, career based), and by their access to different business networks through their employer companies (local vs. domestic or international multinational company networks). We control for selection bias and numerous other individual and firm-level factors identified in the literature as important determinants of interaction with universities. Our findings suggest that industry researchers’ personal networks play a greater role in promoting interactions with local universities (i.e. in the same region, and other regions in the same country) while researcher employment in a multinational is especially important for establishing interaction with universities abroad.

Ansprechpartner: Michael E. Rose, Ph.D.

Seminar  |  16.10.2019 | 12:00  –  13:30

Brown Bag-Seminar: On the Influence of Top Journals

Marco van der Leij (University of Amsterdam)

Max-Planck-Institut für Innovation und Wettbewerb, München, Raum 313

This paper studies the changes in the influence of leading journals in economics, sociology and physics from 1975 to 2017. In economics, the influence of the so-called top 5 journals relative to second tier and top field journals increased starkly in the 1980s and 1990s, stabilizing afterwards. Moreover, the influence of top field journals showed a remarkable convergence in the same period. In contrast, in sociology the relative influence of top journals decreased in the 1980s. We then try to explain these different trends in a model of journal platform competition.

Ansprechpartner: Michael E. Rose, Ph.D.